Published by Federation of Local History Societies
Typesetting and Design J. J. Woods Printed by Naas Printing Ltd., Naas, Co. Kildare ii
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
CONTENTS The Federation of Local History Societies Federation Officers/Committee 2016-2017 Editorial
PAGE vi viii x
ARTICLES Johnann Georg Kohl – a German Visitor to Ireland in 1842 (Part two) Denis Marnane, Tipperary County Historical Society 1 Early Medieval Settlements Keith Murphy, Sallins 11 Wolfe Tone — Family Man Larry Breen, Clane Local History Group 23 The Pale Rampart at Clongowes Wood College Brendan Cullen, Clane Local History Group 30 Lurgan Man’s Poignant Journey to the Somme Johnny Dooher, Strabane, F.U.L.S. 35 The Multifaceted History of the Synge Family Myles Duffy, Rathmichael Historical Society 41 Tyrone Man’s Mission from America to Save the 1916 Rising Johnny Dooher, Strabane, F.U.L.S. 46 Rediscovering the story of Ellen Hutchins of Ballylickey Madeline Hutchins 50 My Grandfather, Daniel Fitzgerald, R.N., at the Battle of Jutland Marie McCarthy nee Fitzgerald, Cork 60 Landmarks of a Visionary Man, William Penn, 1644-1718 Marie Guillot, Cloyne Literary & Historical Society 67 Sráid Uí Mórdha/Moore Street Bróna Uí Loing, Rathcoole 75 The Kildare Men who Marched to the GPO Brian McCabe, Kill Local History Group 77 Field Trip to O’Neill Country and Kildare Leo McMahon, Kinsale Historical Society 80 Recalling the Great Monsignor James Horan of Knock Terry Reilly, Ballina, Co. Mayo 87 Ireland’s First Motor Car Passenger Fatality James Scannell 91 Notes on Clericalism and Clerical Education in Penal Times Myra D. Kavanagh 97 iii
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Ashbourne 1916-2016 Anne Kavanagh, Ashbourne Historical Society 1916 Centenary Commemoration in Bantry Angela O’Donovan O’Donovan Rossa Casket John Hennessy, PC, Cork Harbour Islands Project and Great Island Historical Society AGI Joins the FLHS, Paul Gorry, AGI Celebrating Cork Past Exhibition 2016 Society News
111 113 117 119
FEDERATION EVENTS Federation AGM Chairman’s Statement 2016 Minutes of the AGM — Limerick North/South, Larry Breen, Federation of Local History Societies Federation Heart of England Report Federations Visit to the Battlefields of Europe Dates for Your Diary Society Members of the Federation 2016 Membership Application/Renewal Form
135 137 139 144 146 149 155 156 162
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
IT IS AND WHAT IT DOES
HISTORY The Federation of Local History Societies was established in 1981 to promote the interests of amateur historians and voluntary museums and to represent their views. In the intervening years the number of affiliated societies has grown to 134 societies.
AIMS The aims of the Federation are: 1. To encourage research in the fields of history, archaeology, folklife and folklore. 2. To exchange information among affiliated societies through the medium of newsletters, publications, seminars, etc. 3. To develop mutual support among affiliated societies. 4. To encourage the publication of information of historical interest and the better utilisation of Archives.
MEMBERSHIP Membership of the Federation is open to all Local History societies, Archaeological societies, Field Groups, Folklore and Folk-life societies, Family or Genealogical Societies and local museums. Other similar organisations which don’t come within these categories can be linked with the Federation through Associated Membership.
The Federation has a voluntary secretariat by which societies can help one another and combine to achieve results which could not be achieved by individual effort. The member societies come together twice yearly at different venues around the country. The Annual General Meeting and Seminars, Lectures and Workshops provide an exciting exchange of ideas from all over the country. The Federation’s Journal is a source of information on the activities of the member societies and its contents indicate the widespread and growing interest in local history, which highlights the need for such an organisation as the Federation. v
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
INDIVIDUALS When you join your local history group you are joining a lively group of enthusiastic people who share a common interest in local history, archaeology, folklore. You do not need to have any particular qualification or a high level of knowledge of the subjects outlined, but as a member, you will learn much about your heritage, in a most enjoyable way, by having access to the lectures and slide shows organised during the autumn, winter and spring.
MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION/RENEWAL FORM IS AVAILABLE DOWNLOAD ON THE FEDERATION WEBSITE: www.localhistory.ie
Larry Breen 8 The Paddocks, Naas, Co. Kildare Tel. (045) 897445 Email – [email protected] vii
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
COMMITTEE MEMBERS Josephine Byrne, 64 Floraville Avenue, Clondalkin, Dublin 22. Email: – [email protected] Kay Lonergan, 142, Vernon Avenue, Clontarf, Dublin 3 Email: – [email protected] Eugene Jordan, An Chorrbhuaile, Bearna, Co. na Gaillimhe Email: – [email protected] Frank Taaffe, Ardreigh House, Athy, Co. Kildare. Email: – [email protected] Dick Ryan, 6 Hillcourt Road, Glenageary, Co. Dublin Email: – [email protected] Eamon Leonard, Kilwarren, Ballinora, Walterfall, Co. Cork Email: – [email protected] Eddie Synnott, Weatherstown, Glenmore, via Mullinavat Post Office, Co. Kilkenny Email: – [email protected] James Dockery, The Rise, Hodson Bay, Athlone, Co. Roscommon Email: – [email protected] Clare O’Halloran, c/o School of History, UCC, Cork, Co. Cork Email: – [email protected] John Bradshaw, Goats’ Lane, Tipperary Town, Co. Tipperary Tel. 062.33188. Padraig Laffan, 92 Springhill Avenue, Blackrock, Co. Dublin Email: – [email protected] Ann Cusack, 1 Lake View, Faithlegg, Waterford. Email: – [email protected]
THE SOCIETY’S WEBSITE
FACEBOOK PAGE: http://www.facebook.com/localhistory.ie/ viii
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
EDITORIAL I believe that most of us can look back on the year 2016 as a special year when member societies from all around the country engaged in commemorating 1916 in many different ways with walks, talks, exhibitions, book launches to name a few. Our own Federation seminar in the autumn was significant in that it explored the effects on the social lives of “ordinary people” in Ireland both north and south during the decade 1912-1922. The seminar considered in particular the events of the 1916 Easter Rising and the WWI Battle of the Somme and how these two events affected people at the time. I think the commemorations were balanced and we all played a part in making it a memorable year which will last in the memories of most people. This year was perhaps the busiest year the Federation has experienced for many years. We made our annual trip to the United Kingdom with a visit to “The Heart of England” which included many excursions around the midlands during our stay. We also travelled to mainland Europe with a memorable visit to the Battlefields of Belgium and France. It was a poignant experience and made all the more meaningful when both federations shared in the laying of a wreath at the last post ceremony at the Menin Gate in Ypres. We were also privileged to share during our visit a personal story with one of our group whose family had been involved in the Battle of the Somme and whose grand uncle was buried in a nearby cemetery. We welcomed our colleagues from the Ulster Federation to Dublin on the annual exchange visit during which we visited Kilmainham Gaol and Glasnevin Cemetery. The AGM held in Limerick City was a great success and we extend a sincere word of thanks to the Thomond Archaeological Society for hosting the event and for the very warm welcome we received during the weekend. We attended the Celebrating Cork Past 8th Annual Family Heritage Festival where we had a stand and are always delighted to support this unique occasion. Membership continues to increase and we extend a warm welcome to all new societies who joined us during the year. Our Hidden Gems & Forgotten People project is ongoing and continues to grow and we encourage you to get involved by making a contribution. ix
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Keep in touch and continue to support the Federation activities which are designed to help us all better promote local history study in our communities. Mile buíochas duit agus bain taitneamh as do chuid stair áitiúil
LARRY BREEN HON. EDITOR
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
JOHANN GEORG KOHL - A GERMAN IRELAND IN 1842
PART TWO BY
DENIS G. MARNANE
INTRODUCTION In the last issue of this journal, in the first of three articles, we followed the early stages of the Irish journey of the German scholar and traveller, thirty-four year old Johann Georg Kohl who is one of the most frequently quoted and cited nineteenth century travellers in Ireland, a man who brought an outsider’s perception to bear on what was to him a foreign country and which is to us even more foreign. He was very well educated in a variety of universities and was widely travelled on the continent and in America. Given his scholarly disposition, it was fitting that he ended his career as city librarian of Bremen in Germany. Travel was valuable for its own sake but it was much better if it resulted in a book. 1 Kohl’s Travels in Ireland was published in Germany in 1843 and the following year an English translation appeared. Kohl landed at Kingstown (Dun Laoghaire) in late October 1842 and remained in Ireland for about a month. Ireland, especially outside of its cities seemed remote, mysterious, often dangerous, even to the British. For Kohl, Ireland was ‘this land, infinitely rich in peculiarities unknown in the rest of Europe.’ It may be understood therefore that this island, off an island, off the continent had a certain allure. In the previous account of Herr Kohl’s journey, having landed near Dublin, he spent but a short time in the capital, being anxious to explore the interior. Of course, with a book in mind, better copy would likely be found in the countryside and so he set off using a variety 1
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 of conveyances, his target the home of one of the best known Irish people of the time and an exotic bonus, a woman, the writer Maria Edgeworth. From the settlement bearing the family name, Kohl moved south and eventually arrived at Limerick. Unlike many travellers from Britain who arrived in Ireland with letters of introduction to ease their way, Kohl had to rely on his own initiative but he did have contact with a family in Ennis and so he got to experience the wilds of that county. Arriving at Kilrush, he was thrilled to witness Fr Theobald Mathew one of the great celebrities of the period in action. From Clare Kohl moved into Kerry and by 5 October, roughly two weeks into his tour, he arrived in Killarney, a must-see but hardly ground-breaking. Eventually he arrived at Cork city where he met and was impressed by John Murphy who was the Roman Catholic bishop to his death in 1847.
Kohl had very good reason to drag himself away from Cork, he had been told about a great horse race due to take place in Kilkenny and so he set off, a customer once again of Mr Bianconi. At this point, the beginning of chapter eighteen, the author makes two points that speak to us across the centuries, reassuring reminders that with so much so different, unchanging is our need to minimize the impact of bad weather – no matter how wet it was, there was always someone to mention the ‘delightful’ weather – and secondly, no sooner was Kohl ensconced on the Bianconi car and knowing his fellow passengers curiosity about the stranger, he made an announcement about where he was from and why he was in Ireland. Kohl, unusually perhaps, was a German with a sense of humour. One suggestion he made to allow a traveller cope with the intense curiosity of others was to summarise his business on a small piece of paper and attach it to his hat. Travel on one of Mr Bianconi’s cars had the advantage of throwing Kohl in contact with a selection of the middle order of society. On this journey 2
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 for example, a fellow passenger was an extensive whiskey distiller who talked about the impact on his business of Fr Mathew’s crusade. Before he had ninety employees, now he had fifty but he approved of the good friar’s work: fifty workers sober was much better than ninety drunk. As his route took him through Tipperary, the author remarks how even that ferocious place had been made less so by less alcohol. Such was the fearsome reputation of that county that it was probably just as well that he was in it before he knew it. As a stranger, Kohl can be forgiven for a measure of geographical confusion when he wrote: ‘Leaving Cahir, we reached the far-famed county of Tipperary in which more men are beaten and killed in one year than in the whole kingdom of Saxony in five years.’ These are but the opening notes in an aria about the vengeful nature of that county’s inhabitants and their weapon of choice, the shillelagh. When he tried to engage in innocent conversation with the first Tipperaryman he encountered, he met with a tirade of abuse about asking questions. One of his fellow passengers who claimed knowledge about Tipperary and its inhabitants talked reassuringly that he had never been attacked and that not all its people were dangerous. Clonmel was not quite the heart of darkness Kohl might have expected – ‘a very respectable looking and thriving town’ – but he was disappointed not to meet the great man himself, Mr Bianconi, whom he was told was in Italy (which of course might be code for not wishing to meet nuisance Germans!). Clonmel like every other city, town and village swarmed with people, lots of poor people who gathered around the car and ran beside it begging and the design of the Bianconi car, eight people back to back facing the sides of the road, meant that there was no escaping eye contact. Johann Kohl arrived in Kilkenny, a city more antiquarian than thriving, on the eve of the great race which by then was a tradition more than a century old. He found the city bursting with people, all in high good humour but to the writer’s mind the most remarkable aspect was the huge number of ballad singers who not only sang but sold cheap printed copies of their work. With bagpipes ‘snuffling’, violins ‘squeaking’, ‘melancholy flutes blowing’ and ‘ragged Paddies dancing’ was ‘mingled a mass of misfortune, misery and mourning’ such as would not be found in any other country. The race course was some three miles from the town and Kohl with another of the passengers from Cork, hired a coach for both transport and from which to view the races. Kohl has a great deal to say about racing, how it was regulated and was especially sympathetic about the discipline needed to be a successful jockey, telling his readers more perhaps than they needed to know about keeping down weight. For anyone interested in horse racing and its history, any summary 3
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 here will not do justice to the detail and colour of Kohl’s description, not least the amount of dust churned into the atmosphere. The first race a steeple chase, the second a so-called ‘hurdle race’ and finally a contest between ‘farmers’ horses most of which were ridden by their owners and which Kohl enjoyed most. To cater for the vast throng, a ‘city of tents’ was erected near the race course, ‘where every earthly desire an Irishman could form might be gratified’. All the tents sold drink (divided between alcohol and tea) and had small spaces for dancing, planks placed over a hole in the ground to provide some bounce. Apart from customers, this tent city was inundated with ballad singers, presumably the same he had seen the previous evening in the city. Some were ‘misery personified’ but nevertheless plied their wares and sang their songs. Also attracted to this revelry in Kilkenny were an assortment of side shows and circus acts, all shouting to persuade people to spend their halfpennies. A throw- away remark mentions one of these acts being a ‘company of black Africans’, surely a novel waiting to be written. The following day, a much needed respite, was given over to seeing some Kilkenny sights. Pretty much the same sights a visitor might view today, from cathedral to castle and in between stuff about the Butlers. As Herr Kohl concluded his description of Kilkenny, he noted that whereas in Germany ivy was only allowed on ruins, in Ireland, including Kilkenny Castle, this ‘parasite’ was allowed free reign. Around six o’clock the following morning Kohl departed Kilkenny bound for Waterford and noted the usual gathering of beggars were not deterred by the early hour. It can appear that the author is indifferent and does not mind telling us that the imprecations of beggars usually leave him cold but describing the scene as he departed Kilkenny, how beggars to make their case pushed forward an old blind woman, he warns his readers, especially Englishmen that no matter how much is written on the subject, the reality is far far worse – ‘ruin, decay, rags, beggars and misery’. This part of his journey centred more on Ireland’s bigger settlements. Urban growth he noted was greater in the north of Ireland. Waterford for example, mainly depending on the export of grain, had shown little increase in population. All these matters were political and reminding his readers of the great issue of the day, the repeal of the Act of Union, he describes how he took tea at an hotel in the city but not in the usual dining room but in a special salon signposted ‘Repeal Rooms’ where supporters of the cause, which meant most of the people, could show their support, take tea and read friendly newspapers. Too practical for the Irish temperament perhaps, Kohl wondered at the absence of unionist papers. If this was Germany he tells us, people would want to know what the enemy was thinking and doing. 4
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
There was no getting away from Repeal. Leaving Waterford Harbour on a steamer called ‘The Repealer’ Kohl turned his face towards New Ross and playing to the picture already painted describes how the Irish, never able to resist an open sprung surface, set to dancing on the deck. Verification perhaps that Riverdance et al are really the soul of the nation laid bare. Arriving in New Ross, the German traveller liked the look of the place but with another traveller, they decided to hire a horse and little jaunting car and on a moonlit night set off around eleven o’clock to travel the twenty or so miles to Wexford, passing through land totally given over to tillage. Reassuring his readers, Kohl emphasised that Wexford was not Tipperary and was relatively free of crime. In fact, parts of Wexford seemed not really Irish! Though he was aware of what happened in the county in 1798 which remember was just a few decades prior to Kohl’s visit. The barony of Forth because of its many differences to the rest of the island, fascinated the writer, not least the fact that it had no beggars. In fact, as painted by Kohl this corner of Ireland was a kind of ‘demi-paradise’, a standard towards which the rest of the country could only aspire. There was no getting away from Fr Mathew, with posters announcing his visit to Wexford in a few days. Wexford ‘an old town with narrow streets and small houses’ was a thriving port with boat building an important industry. ‘American and Baltic timber and Irish oak are everywhere to be seen.’ In Wexford he visited a school and was enthused by the idea of catholic and protestant children being educated together. It was still early days and this happy fantasy of inclusivity had not yet run aground on the rocks of confessional politics. It certainly did seem like progress when Kohl on his journey around Ireland noted in many towns schools opening and distilleries closing. Wexford he tells us once had seven distilleries and now had one. Along with schools, Kohl could not but notice new catholic churches being built, their steeples, as in Cahir for example, rivalling those of protestant neighbours. With respect to Irish towns, of which he saw a great many, the writer’s summary of their characteristics was as follows: ‘a number of goodly buildings, a similar number of ruined dwelling houses, a suburbquarter of miserable huts, some new well built national and infant schools, some old and some quite modern catholic churches, a fever hospital, an extensive fortress-looking workhouse and lastly, perhaps, some barracks for soldiers.’ Kohl certainly gave Wexford his attention and moved on to Enniscorthy and visited Vinegar Hill, prompting him to remark that while O’Connell pursued his campaign for repeal peacefully, there were constant reminders of a bloody alternative, what today might be termed ‘dog-whistles’. 5
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 From Wexford, Kohl moved into Wicklow travelling by stage coach, some of which vehicles had contracts to transport and deliver mail, though he tells us that the coachman as often as not did not actually deliver a parcel to a house but threw it in that general direction from the moving coach. If there was a local tourism committee charged with promoting the Vale of Avoca, they could not be more fulsome in praise than Herr Kohl. Though what aroused his special interest was unexpected, the extent to which trees were festooned with ivy, beautiful yes but Kohl was uncertain about how much benefit this was to the oak forests. Equally of interest to him, given his location, was the work of Thomas Moore and especially his Meeting of the Waters, a reminder just how famous Moore was in his lifetime. He died in 1852. Kohl emphasised that Moore should not be thought of as an English poet but someone who used the English language ‘to clothe his Irish thoughts, feelings and sentiments.’ Beside Avoca, Wicklow also offered the visitor Glendalough, to which place the writer devoted a chapter. Kohl was perceptive enough to note the contrast between this holy wilderness with all its wild Romantic association and in the real world, the fact that the ‘English had made a great military road through this wilderness and erected barracks at the various stations, which at the time of the rebellion were all filled with soldiers ....some of those barracks are now turned into police stations.’ Adding to the antiquity and mystery of such sites, places with round towers, were contemporary theories about their origin and purpose, having to do with pagan worship, stories that of course featured druids. Kohl did not necessarily accept any particular theory and warns his German readers that rural protestant clergymen with some learning and too much time on their hands, had their own theories and were only too willing to unload on the visitor. Rathdrum was viewed very positively as was the innkeeper, prompting Kohl to praise all the ‘good, neat and clean rooms’ that he found everywhere in Ireland. As always with travel books like this, the incidental remark, throw-away comment and brief aside reach across the centuries and grab our attention. On the matter of the hospitality business, Kohl mentions that a frequent selling-point for an inn or hotel was the statement and the promise: ‘The landlord is an Englishman, Sir, you will find yourself very comfortable there.’ An odd complaint was that beds were generally so large that they occupied most of a room. ‘The fare usually consists of mutton chops, potatoes and tea.’ The latter we are told was invariable good, potatoes ever only half boiled, while the chops were frequently tough. A less positive aspect of life in Rathdrum was tension between catholics and protestants on the question of education for their children, a matter for discussion all over the country and one resolved by national schools becoming either catholic or protestant. 6
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
DUBLIN And so after days making his way through some of the provinces, Johann Kohl was back in Dublin with one key item on his agenda, getting a meeting with the most famous Irishman of all, one Daniel O’Connell. Kohl was more than just a VIP hunter and the lengthy section of his book dealing with Dublin does so under four heading: O’Connell, the poor law system in the capital; museums and scholarship and the squares of Dublin, a very unusual mix but having in common aspects of the loss of status of the city on the Liffey. As Kohl said it was like wanting to meet the Pope if one was in Rome. O’Connell was then Lord Mayor of Dublin, the first Roman Catholic to hold the job since the penal laws. Kohl indicated that while he met him for fifteen minutes, he well understood that O’Connell’s importance transcended the personal and individual and that O’Connell had in a way become public property, something foreign visitors might find difficult to understand, allowing that their leaders continued to have private dimensions. O’Connell had none and in a sense was ‘Catholic Ireland’. A modern reader will derive wry amusement from Kohl’s confident assertion that there could never be such a German leader because the people were too ‘enlightened’ unlike the ‘innocent’ Irish, to give their entire trust to one man. During part of the 1830s, when the Tories were out of office, O’Connell and his parliamentary followers did business with the government of Lord Melbourne (a man remembered today for two things, his close relationship with the young Queen Victoria and the behaviour of his wife Caroline Lamb who went crazy – literally – for the love of Lord Byron and, oh yes, a city in Australia). One of the important reforms that came out of this alliance was Irish local government; one consequence of which was O’Connell becoming Dublin’s lord mayor. In 1840 O’Connell founded the Repeal Association to 7
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 agitate for the undoing of the 1800 Act of Union and the restoration of a parliament to Ireland. Catholic Emancipation had been won in 1829 by mass peaceful agitation, a new and in its way revolutionary strategy that O’Connell hoped to use a second time. In order to see O’Connell at work, Kohl went to a routine Repeal meeting at the Corn Exchange in Dublin. The hall was packed but according to the writer’s judgement, not with Dublin’s finest but rather with poorer folk from the provinces. The rags in which they were dressed was a clue. Around the hall were some slogans on banners, of which the shortest was: ‘Repeal is Erin’s right and God’s decree’. Like many other commentators on the phenomenon of Daniel O’Connell, Kohl could only wonder at The Liberator’s ability to rouse a vast crowd, while at the same time keeping them just on the right side of the law. Because nationalists were outside the magic circle of government with its prizes and baubles, their control of local government provided the only opportunity to cut a dash on the public stage. And so O’Connell arrived to the meeting in his corporation robes and wearing his chain of office. Among those with O’Connell was his son John (at the date of this meeting, thirty-two years old to his father’s sixty-seven), a man of lesser talent than his father but who took over leadership of the campaign when his father died in 1847. Of course there is no visual or aural record of Daniel O’Connell speaking to his followers but Kohl with an outsider’s eye and interest in small details goes some way to bridge the gap between then and now. The first point is that O’Connell wore a wig and had a habit of adjusting it. (This date, 1842 was long after the period when it was customary for gentlemen to wear wigs.) Changing his stance while speaking necessitated a kind of hop and a pivot on his heels as he turned his focus on various sides of the hall. The Corn Exchange was not a theatre and so with the speaking party on a platform in the middle of the hall, they were surrounded by their audience. The speaker’s hands also came into play, striking whatever was to hand to make a point. An obvious point of course is that speakers had no public address system other than the power and projection of their voices. Kohl considered the son a better public speaker than the father. O’Connell Senior ‘sometimes hesitates, thinks and repeats himself; but all this ceases when he becomes warm and enthusiastic.’ Kohl made no observation about O’Connell speaking with a Kerry accent as such but he expressed surprise that the man had a ‘brogue’ and (still) very common in Ireland had trouble with ‘th’ turning it into a ‘d’ sound so that for example ‘father’ became ‘fader’. At least unlike some other speakers at the meetings, he did not turn the sound of ‘repeal’ into ‘repale’. 8
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Kohl criticised the fact that O’Connell had what today is called a ‘stump speech’ — a standard iteration containing fundamental policy points and pavlovian phrases such as ‘poor Erin’ ‘Emerald Isle’, ‘spirit of Ireland’ or ‘Saxon’ to elicit predicted crowd responses. ‘To have heard one of his speeches is to have heard them all’, was Kohl’s opinion, though he cannot have heard many of O’Connell’s speeches but in truth the German, while fascinated by O’Connell, did not altogether approve of him. O’Connell’s speeches were reported in the sympathetic press and it would be an interesting exercise (not done by this writer) to see how accurately Kohl reported O’Connell’s speech at this meeting. To an extent a meeting like this was theatre with predicted moves and expected flourishes. His speech concluded, O’Connell sat down and while cheers of approbation rang around the venue, The Liberator shared a bunch of grapes with his son. When a boy of about eight came up to present the £4 (a good deal of money) that he and his school friends had collected for the cause of Repeal, O’Connell jumped from his seat and made a fuss of the lad, asking his name and introducing the child to the hall. Kohl was not impressed: ‘It was a strange sight to see the pretty little child standing opposite this cunning old fox — for it cannot be denied that O’Connell has something extremely sly about him.’ Campaigns run on money and Repeal was no exception so the fund-raising aspect of such a meeting was crucial and good financial contributions, from individuals, groups or communities were highlighted. Such was the enthusiasm engendered that one poor man on an upper bench (a gallery ran round the hall) shouted that he would give what was in his pocket, which was fourpence. Kohl, while admitting that political campaigns need money obviously picked up on a criticism made against O’Connell, that there was too much emphasis on fund-raising and by the way don’t you think that he and his family live rather splendidly! The techniques of political undermining have not really changed. The meeting lasted several hours and in Kohl’s judgement the attention and energy of the crowd never flagged and virtually no one left the hall. The final speaker must have been unexpected, at least to our German friend because the final turn of the evening was another German, a man who had just come from America and whose remit was to tell the hall how well received and understood Repeal was in the States; that O’Connell was another Washington and that the negative view of Irish emigrants was changing, thanks to the work of Fr Mathew. Kohl’s own view whatever his reservations was to admit that O’Connell was a phenomenon and an innovator, a man who ‘has for forty years raised 9
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 an opposition against the most powerful aristocracy in the world, while on his side he has had almost nothing but a few millions of beggars as supporters.’ Having witnessed one living phenomenon in action, still in Dublin, Kohl turned his attention to something of an institutional phenomenon, the poor law system with its workhouses and harsh regime. Before the state became involved dealing with the growing weight of poverty in Ireland, relief was up to private charitable ventures, of which Kohl tells his readers, there were up to fifty in Dublin alone, small scale and specialised. (At least one of these still exists, the wonderfully named ‘The Sick and Indigent Roomkeepers’ Society’.) At the time Kohl visited Ireland the new state system was still being put in place but the writer did enough homework to know that at its heart was the dogma that however bad living conditions were out in the world, they had to be worse in a workhouse. Even with a few weeks exposure to Ireland, Kohl saw that this might prove difficult. As he wrote: ‘In Ireland it would be scarcely possible to make the lodging, clothes and food of the poor in the workhouses worse than those of the Irish peasants.’ The state of course did its best to meet this challenge! As Kohl understood the matter, the state failed. In reality, apart from the strict discipline, individuals (the system did not deal with family units) were materially better off in workhouses. The writer did acknowledge that this loss of freedom was for many a severe imposition. Kohl visited the North Dublin Union, not far from the Four Courts and remembered today because it was occupied by Edward Daly and his men during the Easter Rising. During Kohl’s visit one of the strangest sights he saw in Ireland was the old-clothes store, holding the apparel of some 2,000 inmates. Workhouse inmates had to wear a uniform, grey in colour (of course) and stamped N.D.U.W.H. They were free to leave at any time and so no matter how threadbare and dirty their own clothes were, they had to be stored and returned if an inmate left. We are told that if an inmate remained in the workhouse for a year and was of good behaviour then he/she was given new street clothes. Kohl concluded his piece on the workhouse system with some maths. When completed, there would be around 150 workhouses, each holding on average 500 inmates, a total of 75,000 which came nowhere near the scope of the problem. Well might Kohl wonder what was to happen to all the other hundreds of thousands of poor. Remember, this question was being asked in 1842.
J.G. Kohl, Travels in Ireland (London, 1844). Kohl’s adventures featured in the well known C. Maxwell, The Stranger in Ireland (London, 1954), pp. 278-95
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
EARLY MEDIEVAL SETTLEMENTS BY
The Early medieval period in Ireland stretches roughly from 400-1200 AD, involving the Viking period and up to the Norman incursion. It was a time when large political dynasties were beginning to gain positions of political prestige and was contemporary with the introduction and rise of Christianity and monasticism in Ireland. The majority of people on the island lived within ringforts in this period. This article will focus on these early medieval settlements and the social organisation attributed to them. In order to garnish an insight into this period it is necessary to delve through all the available evidence which survived through the ages in the forms of literary, historical and predominantly archaeological sources. The site of Johnstown 1, Co. Meath which was excavated due to the construction of an extension of the M4 Motorway, unearthed an abundance of archaeology relating to this period in question. The strategic positioning of a settlement on the landscape can perhaps display a social aspect of its respective community, depending on where exactly within the topography it rests. The site at Johnstown 1 lay within close proximity to a couple of ringfort sites located within a few kilometres of one another. They were subsequently situated on an interesting focal point of the east midlands and were straddling a medieval political division within a wider landscape. Large political dynasties like the Eoganacht and the Uí Néill had truly established their dominance on the southern and northern parts of Ireland respectively by the early medieval period and up to roughly the end of the eleventh-century. The Johnstown 1 site rested on the western edge of Brega territory which was under Uí Néill control from early on in the early medieval period. They supposedly descended from Niall Noígiallach (Niall of the nine hostages), who was perhaps a mythical figure, and the historical evidence from this period suggests that genealogies were of great importance to powerful political entities like the Uí Néill dynasty. This article will concentrate specifically on the evidence that was exhumed from the Johnstown 1 ringfort location and the archaeological evidence will form the core material utilised to generate an overall understanding of the burial rituals over time in these settlements. The Early medieval period in Ireland brought with it change of a dynamic nature in economic and social systems. This was in part achieved through the arrival of Christianity in the fifth century and the contemporary rise of dynastic kingships like the Uí Neill. 11
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The emergence of high status settlements and the influence of a new religion on society were evolving. Church laws, rituals, symbols and practices were influencing Irish culture and embedding themselves in the landscape. Funerary traditions are perhaps an area of early medieval Ireland where tradition carried on rather than embraced the new way. This article will interpret the changing character of a burial ground and the practice of how people, over time, treated their dead. The archaeological evidence from sites such as Johnstown 1, Collierstown, Castlefarm, Roestown 2, Co. Meath, will show how ancestral traditions were more significant to Christian people in Ireland than Church laws when they were dealing with their dead. Burial customs can provide us with insights into social identities, age structures, gender relations and social organisation. Examination of Johnstown 1, Co. Meath, will demonstrate how this occurred for over one thousand years alongside domestic and industrial activity and how power and wealth becomes anchored in the landscape and how this representation lives on with their dead. During the building of the M4 motorway an enclosed burial, settlement and industrial site was discovered in Johnstown 1, Co. Meath (Carlin; et al.2008, 57). (See fig.1). This site formed part of the landscape of four contemporary medieval enclosures at Newcastle, Posseckstown, Killickaweeny and Johnstown 1; consequently, it would seem certain that each one was aware of the other’s existence. Johnstown 1 is unique as the archaeological evidence shows that it was used as a domestic settlement, an industrialised environment with animal enclosures but also as a burial site for over a thousand years from c. AD 500 to AD 1900. There were three phases of development at Johnstown 1 and all three centred on an early burial mound (measuring 15.5m by 18.5m) which “represents a transitional period between the late Iron Age and the early medieval period” (Carlin, et al. 2008, 56). Phase 1 was a suboval U-shaped enclosure, with an entrance on the north side, c.59m in diameter and was defined by a ditch. Phase 2 had two entrances identified, one on the south-east and the other one on the north side. It measured 53m by 54m and was defined by a more substantial ditch; this was also U-shaped in profile. Phase 3 of the enclosure showed a change in design and was D-shaped in profile. This phase measured 47m by 61m and the D-shaped ditch cut off the north-western side of the two earlier enclosures. There was no definitive entrance observed but a rise in the base may be interpreted as an entrance to the north east of the ditch. 12
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The excavations at Johnstown revealed 461 burials (see Fig 3), “70 adult males, 72 adult females, 41 unsexed adults, 18 adolescents, 111 juveniles and 149 infants” (Carlin, et al. 2008, 59). The earlier burials were excavated from within the enclosure while the later graves were connected to a mill-race ditch and the gravel bank to the east of the enclosure. Radio-carbon dating suggests that the first burial may have been as early as AD 370 with on-going use of the cemetery until the 1920s. Evidence shows that the main cemetery was in use from AD 370-1700 and from AD 1700-1920 it was used as a cillín burial place, an unconsecrated burial place in Ireland for children unbaptised at their time of death, (see Fig. 3). After carrying out the post excavation analysis, Fibiger (2008) states that there were 346 burials from the medieval enclosure and 53 from the post-medieval enclosure with 62 from the early modern cillín. Also defined in this analysis was the age distribution of the enclosure burials, adults of 17 years plus accounted for 45%, adolescents 13-17 years 5%, juveniles 4-12 years 28% and infants over 1 year 22%. The mound was the focus of the earliest burial activity with 220 burials discovered here. These were aligned west/east, with the head facing the west and the majority of these were extended inhumations. They were placed in unlined grave-cuts with no evidence, such as pins, to indicate any bodies were wrapped in shrouds nor were there any associated grave goods. Some objects such as slag, bone comb fragments and decorated beads were found in the backfill of some of the graves. The change to Christian burial customs and the non-use of grave goods has impacted on the archaeological evidence and left us with the law texts for guidance of social and cultural activities for the time. Within the southern part of the enclosure graves were found from the seventh to the tenth century. Nine of these appear to form a separate group and were edged by some stones in an attempt to fashion stone-lined graves. A juvenile burial contained stones placed beneath the head or a ‘pillow stone’ grave and a further three grave cuts contained burials with stones placed at either side of their heads, these are called ‘ear-muffs’. Four double burials were also identified of which three contained juveniles and one consisted of a juvenile and an adult female (Carlin, et al. 2008, 62, [see Fig. 4]). A single prone burial (lying face down) was discovered to the far south-east of the mound. Also discovered were the partial remains of three disarticulated adults in a large oval-shaped charnelpit (see Fig 5) which were dated to AD 370-640. These were probably previously interred somewhere else and taken back to be buried in the Johnstown 1 pit. Two simple un-lined graves containing adult females of similar date were also found. One had extended legs while the other had flexed legs 13
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 with the hip and knee joints bent. Another three burials found in this same area returned dates ranging from AD 680-980. The south, southeast and east of the mound within the enclosure, revealed another 350 interred bodies. Radiocarbon dating (see Fig. 6) was carried out on four individuals producing a combined date range of AD 880-1010. Three more bodies were dated AD 900-1255 and one of these appeared to “cut the eastern edge of the mound” (Carlin, et al. 2008, 62), another was in the upper fill of the south-eastern end of the enclosure ditch from phase 3 and the third was contained in the south-east of the mound. The section in the south-east of the mound that sealed the second phase contained nine inhumations and some metallurgical debris. The east of the mound revealed five burials which dated from the later medieval period and spanned the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries. One burial which was cut into the entranceway of the second enclosure returned a post-medieval radiocarbon date of AD 1500-1665. A further 53 burials recovered from the topsoil post-dated all other activity and are likely to be post-medieval in date. Contemporary sites to Johnstown 1, Co. Meath, with graves have been discovered but with less emphasis on burials and longevity of use. Sites such as Roestown 2, Co. Meath, contained the poorly preserved inhumation burials of an adult and a 10-12 year old juvenile. Both had been “extensively truncated by post-medieval ploughing” (O’Hara 2006, 78). In Collierstown, Co. Meath, 61 inhumations were discovered of which 55 burials were adult (O’Hara 2009, 13). The site at Castlefarm, Co. Meath, revealed a total of 12 burials of which one was the grave of an infant that may be “significantly later than the other archaeological activity on the site” (O’ Connell 2009, 50). The Castlefarm burials were laid on their backs in earth cut graves and were buried west-east with the head at the west. Other evidence discovered at Castlefarm indicated that a cluster of seven burials belonged to the same kin group (O’Connell 2009, 50) from the early phase of the enclosure occupation, but at Killickaweeny, Co. Meath, evidence of burials was absent. The sites mentioned are all on the edge of Brega, a significant territory of the Southern Uí Neill and form an interesting component in the landscape. Four major sites are embedded in the landscape within two kilometres of one another. These sites showed evidence of the organisation of internal space, for the occupation and protection of some very high status or perhaps royal families. They show evidence of domestic, industrial and burial activity through different stages and generations. The uniqueness of Johnstown 1 is highlighted through the evidence of all three activities taking place in this enclosure. All the evidence shows Johnstown 1 to be a secular settlement with no indication of ecclesiastical structures or artefacts discovered to contradict this. 14
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The graves appear to be in clusters, perhaps in family plots and are all buried in the Roman tradition (which was adopted by Christianity) of west-east burial with the head at the west. The graves do not align with each other as they are buried at different times of the year. A family member would dig the site and they would rise with the sun to position the burial site. This may explain the non-uniformity of the site as the sun rises at different times so therefore will show different alignments. This allows archaeologists an insight into the time of the year a person died and the death rate of the group buried in Johnstown 1. The use of crouched (foetal position) burials is a pre-Christian belief system to bury the dead. Johnstown 1 provides insights to how the families of these sites buried their dead and the importance of having them buried near. Contrary to thought, the evidence requires a consideration of early Christian burial customs. These Christians ignored Church law and considered it more important to have ancestors buried near instead of in expensive graves in Church grounds. Another unique factor to Johnstown 1 was the discovery of a cillín, where the site contained 61 infants and two adults whose graves were cut into the upper fill of the mill-race ditch. The name cillín is associated with a place of burial for unbaptized children and they are often found in medieval enclosures, secret places of liminality and the cillín at Johnstown 1 is dated AD 1700-1900. Some cillíní are not solely restricted to unbaptized children and may contain unborn children, suicide victims, foreigners and criminals. In the very early burial site, foetuses and neonates were buried in the main burial ground and it would seem socially acceptable for the baptised and unbaptized to be buried together. As Christianity took a strong hold in Irish society, Canon Law excluded certain people from been buried on consecrated ground and this forced the use of the Johnstown 1 cillín for over three hundred years after this. This ancient monument provided a place of rest for the interred instead of the place of limbo proffered by the Church. Carlin, et al (2008, 66) state that this may be a deliberate act of placing the deceased in the care of their ancient ancestors. Johnstown 1 showed us how this high status site continued to be used as a cemetery for over a thousand years. The evidence excavated contradicted the modern perceptions of early Christian practices. Its uniqueness and longevity of funeral rituals provides us with greater insights into the activities of the people who occupied this site and those who continued to use it as a cemetery when it became uninhabited.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Figure 1 plan of the enclosure at Johnstown 1, Co. Meath (schematic plan of the multiperiod enclosure, 2008, Illus. 4.2) (from Carlin et al. 2008, fig 1)
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Figure 2 complete plan (overall site plan showing the enclosures, burial site, mill-race ditch and metal work areas 2008, Illus. 4.3) (from Carlin et al. 2008, fig 2)
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Figure 3 (plan showing burials within the enclosure, 2008, Illus. 4.4a) (the early modern children’s cemetery, 2008, Illus. 4.4b) (from Carlin et al. 2008, fig 1)
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Flexed Inhumation
Adult with pillow stones
Juvenile with ear muffs
Infant with ear muffs and stone lined grave
Figure 4 shows the diversity of burials at Johnstown 1. Illustrations show flexed double, pillow stones and ear-muffs inhumations. (2008, Illus. 4.5) (From Carlin et al. 2008, fig 1)
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Figure 5 shows a charnel pit and a crouched inhumation. (2008, Illus. 4.5) (From Carlin et al. 2008, fig 1)
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Figure 6 is the diagram showing the radio-carbon dating. (Chart showing calibration dates from the enclosure2008, Illus. 4.8) (From Carlin et al. 2008, fig 1)
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
BIBLIOGRAPHY Clark, L. and Carlin, N. 2008 Living with the dead at Johnstown 1: an enclosed burial, settlement and industrial site. In N. Carlin, L. Clarke and F. Walsh, The Archaeology of Life and Death in the Boyne Floodplain, 55–85. National Roads Authority Scheme Monographs 2, Dublin. Clark, L. and Carlin, N. 2009 From focus to locus: a window upon the development of the funerary landscape. In M.B. Deevy and D. Murphy (eds), Places Along the Way. First findings on the M3, 1–20. National Roads Authority Scheme Monographs 5, Dublin. O’Connell, A. 2009 Excavations at Castlefarm – director’s first findings. In M.B. Deevy and D. Murphy (eds), Places Along the Way. First findings on the M3, 43–56. National Roads Authority Scheme Monographs 5, Dublin. O’Hara, R. 2009 Collierstown 1: a late Iron Age – early medieval enclosed cemetery. In M.B. Deevy and D. Murphy (eds), Places Along the Way. First findings on the M3, 83–100. National Roads Authority Scheme Monographs 5, Dublin. O’Hara, R. 2009 Early medieval settlement at Roestown 2. In M.B. Deevy and D. Murphy (eds), Places Along the Way. First findings on the M3, 57–82. National Roads Authority Scheme Monographs 5, Dublin. Figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 reproduced from: Clark, L. and Carlin, N. 2008 Living with the dead at Johnstown 1: an enclosed burial, settlement and industrial site. In N. Carlin, L. Clarke and F. Walsh, The Archaeology of Life and Death in the Boyne Floodplain, 55–85. National Roads Authority Scheme Monographs 2, Dublin.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
WOLFE TONE – FAMILY MAN BY
INTRODUCTION Most if not all of us are familiar with the name Theobald Wolfe Tone, who he was and the contribution he made in the course of Irish history. Described by Pearse as the “greatest of all republicans” it is easy to become immersed in his political and military career and forget about the man himself. This is a brief look at the man and his family.
TONE FAMILY HISTORY The Tone family were French Huguenots from Gascony who fled their homeland as a result of religious persecution. They moved to England in the latter part of the 16th Century. A branch of this family moved to Ireland (Dublin) in the early 17th Century (1600s). By the mid 18th Century, Wolfe Tone’s grandfather, William, held a leasehold in the Bodenstown area and lived in Blackhall near Clane. The Wolfe family were the largest landowners in the area and were in fact freeholders of the section of land leased to the Tone family. Wolfe Tone’s father Peter Tone was the eldest son.
PETER, MARGARET TONE
Peter Tone married Margaret Lamport in 1762. Margaret worked at the Wolfe household in the capacity as personal companion to Mrs Wolfe. She was the daughter of a sea captain who hailed from Drogheda. After they married they moved to Dublin, originally living at number 27, Bride Street, before moving to Stafford Street (Wolfe Tone Street). They had six children, namely, Theobald, William, Matthew, Mary, Arthur and Fanny. Fanny died very young and there is little that can be said about her. Theobald is the subject of this article. William, born in 1764, saw service with the East India Company in St Helena, later in India and was killed fighting in the Mahratha War in 1802. Matthew born in 1771 after seeking his fortune in America and the West Indies joined the French Army. He landed with Humbert in 1798, was captured, court martialled and hanged at Arbour Hill in the same year. Mary born in 1774 was a very spirited girl and accompanied the family to America in 1795. On the return journey to France she met a Swiss Merchant named Giauque, fell in love and married him in Hamburg. They later went to San Domingo where both died of yellow fever. Arthur born in 1782 sailed for the East Indies at the tender age of eighteen as an officer in the Dutch Navy and was never heard of again. 23
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
St Mary’s Church, Mary Street, Dublin where Theobald Wolfe Tone was baptised. His godfather was Theobald Wolfe of Blackhall, Clane.
WOLFE TONE’S COURTSHIP/MARRIAGE Just before we look at Tone’s courtship and marriage to Matilda it is interesting to note that he did have one other relationship with the fair sex. This relationship, with the wife of Richard Martin, M.P., lasted two years but came to nothing. It was in 1785 when Tone was 22 years old that a remarkable woman entered his life in the person of Martha Witherington (Matty). It is an old cliché but their relationship was love at first sight. The courtship makes very interesting reading. The Witheringtons lived above their premises, a wine shop in Grafton Street. Martha would sit sewing at the sitting room window above the shop and as it were watch the world go by. She would gaze at the carriages, the sedan cars, the gentlemen on horseback and the humble pedestrians. She was constantly chastised by her mother and grandfather for this apparent lack of modesty. Her reply was, “sure no one ever notices me up here”. But one spring evening someone did notice her. Her fate walked up Grafton Street in a college gown and glancing up at the window of number 69 saw a girl’s face looking down. It was a lovely face he saw, with arched brows and a sweet sensitive mouth, brown waves of hair above a smooth forehead and a look of serious sympathy for everything 24
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 under her eyes. “That”, he said, “is the loveliest face I have ever seen.” Tone managed to gain entry to the Witherington house through an acquaintance of her brother, Edward. After a short courtship they decided to get married. Martha was 16 and Tone was 22. Martha was very impressed with Tone’s love of the theatre, his interest in music and literature but also the fact that, unlike many men of his time, he frequently asked for and valued her opinion. This she felt set him apart and he seemed to draw light and wisdom from her views. The engagement was secret and they were married on 21st July 1785 in St Anne’s Church in Dawson Street by the curate Edward Ryan. They then went by chaise to lodgings for a honeymoon in Maynooth. This they felt would let the Witheringtons get over the shock. The week together only strengthened their bond and it is said that their love had grown twice in stature since the wedding day. It was at this stage that Tone asked Martha (Matty) if she would consent to change her name to Matilda. This she gladly did and when asked what the name meant, Tone, replied “Mighty battle-heroine”. It is obvious that Tone and Matilda had a very special love/relationship with each other, which never faded. There was a making up with the Witheringtons but unfortunately it did not last too long due to the intervention of Matilda’s brother Edward. Because of this they had to leave Dublin and came back to the parents’ house in Blackhall in 1786. Matilda was well received by the Tones and immediately formed a close friendship with Tone’s sister Mary (Molly) which was to be an enduring friendship. Then their first child, Maria, was born and it exemplified the love and affection that Tone was to show towards his children. Quote: “He showed no awkwardness or fear of the child and was always finding new charms in it.” Tone’s mother, Margaret, remarked, “I never dreamed he could be such a father.” The two years that Tone spent studying law in London were difficult for Matilda who was at home with the baby Maria. Having been shunned by her own family at this stage it was the love and affection shown by Peter and Margaret Tone that helped sustain her. Tone returned from London, there had been a reconciliation with the Witheringtons so Tone and the family moved back to Dublin. It was with great sadness that Matilda was leaving Clane as she had really grown to like the Tone family and all the neighbours she had met who had shown her so much hospitality and kindness. She talked about the Griffith family of Millicent, the humble Ennis family whose son had been Wolfe Tone’s playmate at the big house and many others. Matilda was heard to say, “no one but you takes any notice of the papists, but the poor papists are really the Irish people. I learned that from my living at Blackhall and knowing them there.” 25
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
FAMILY LIFE – CHATEAUBOUE
Tone and Matilda had four children, namely, Maria (baby), William and Francis (Frank). Richard died in infancy. Tone’s uncle Jonathan, who had previously acquired the family lands at the expense of Peter, died and left Tone his country cottage opposite Castlesize near Bodenstown. The time they spent together at the cottage in Clane as a family was a happy one. It was now 1793 and that year Matilda had another son, Francis and they moved from Dublin to the cottage in Clane. Tone christened the cottage “Chateauboue” meaning Mud House.It was described as a dear little house, one end fronting the road just before the turn to Sherlockstown, a grove of trees at the back and the garden at one side. They furnished it simply, the only luxuries being masses of books, Matilda’s harp and Tone’s flute. They were both accomplished musicians and sister Mary was a good singer. The children referred to Tone affectionately as “Fadoff”. Maria was called Baby. These were happy days for the family at Chateauboue. Scarcely an evening passed at the cottage that music of harp, flute and voice was not heard from its windows –– The probable location of Chateauboue; a Irish airs and Italian and French house was recorded on the site indicated music as well. Sometimes a quiet on the 1837 Ordnance Survey map but it no group would gather on the road to longer exists listen. Tone very much played his part as an attentive and caring father whilst they were at Chateauboue. One of his favourites was to play horses with Willie. However the political situation had worsened and Tone was forced to look for exile in America. They travelled as a family to America, then to France where Tone continued to pursue his political and military activities.
CHILDREN Richard died in infancy so there is not much to say. Maria (Baby) died in 1802 with tuberculosis at the age of sixteen when the family were in France. Francis (Frank) the youngest died in 1805, again with 26
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 consumption, and with the family in France. William was the only one of the children to survive beyond his teens. Educated at the prestigious Imperial French Military Academy he was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 8th Chasseurs in the Grand Army. Shortly after Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo he surrendered with the rest of the defeated French Army. When he went to America with his mother he was commissioned an officer in the American army, served in the War Department where he wrote treatises on cavalry and artillery tactics. In 1826 he and Matilda published a biography of Wolfe Tone to ensure that Tone’s memory and the ideals he lived and died for lived on. William married Catherine Sampson and they had one daughter, Grace Georgiana Tone. He died in America in 1828.
TONE/MATILDA Some people maintain that Tone was selfish in the pursuit of his ideals and beliefs to the detriment of his wife and family. There may be some merit in that belief but he was the man that he was and it is important to understand that Matilda never criticised, interfered or resented his involvement with politics. She accepted this as their destiny and her support and love for Tone never wavered. There are many accounts of expressions of love and fondness between them but this one on their final parting is powerful. Tone said, “most likely my life is gone my love but executed I will not be. If I do not die fighting, I’ll take my own way out. But I’m leaving the hard work to you; to live for the children and fight the world for them, — and if it were turned about and you should die, I could not do it. I could not live after you. But you are worth fifty of me, Matty. We belong together, no death can ever separate us forever”.
MATILDA/AFTERMATH Matilda Tone, by any standards, comes over as a remarkable and extraordinary person. She was a very loving, understanding and compassionate person. A woman of remarkably strong character when you consider the many trials, tribulations and great heartaches she experienced in her life and all of which she endured. The ever changing antipathy of her own family, the times she had to endure with the children alone both at home and abroad in foreign lands, the constant worry for the safety of Tone, the eventual loss of her husband and the children one by one. She did marry again, to a Scots man, Thomas Wilson who hailed from Dullatur in Dunbarton, Scotland. He was a family friend, confidant of Tone, and proved to be a great support to Matilda after Tone’s death. During her time in Paris, Matilda had rubbed shoulders with the elite in the French government including Napoleon and many of his ministers. 27
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
FINAL CHAPTER Matilda, Wilson and William left France in 1817 to travel to America for a new life and settled in New York. They first lived at 21, Hudson Street, in New York City. William then took up employment in Washington and Matilda and Wilson joined him there. Unfortunately another blow for Matilda came when Wilson died suddenly in 1824. William married Catherine Sampson who was the only surviving child of Belfast United Irishman William Sampson and who had a law business in the city. William and Catherine moved in to the Tone household in Georgetown. It was during this period that Wolfe Tone’s revolutionary memories were prepared and published by William and Matilda. William died in 1828 and once again Matilda was left alone. She lived on in Georgetown until she died in 1849. She was originally buried in the Old Presbyterian Cemetery in Georgetown, then a suburb of Washington, D.C. When the cemetery was sold in 1891, Matilda’s great grandchildren had her remains transferred to the Maxwell family plot in Green Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn. William’s only child and Matilda’s only grandchild, Grace Georgina Tone, had married Lascelles E. Maxwell. The white marble monument that marked the grave in Georgetown was re-erected in Green Wood Cemetery. To celebrate the legacy of 1798 the New York Irish History Roundtable and Irish American Labor Coalition restored the monument. This was done in the summer of 1996 by Sean Webster, a fine arts sculptor and painter who restored the monument and added a new inscription: In memory of Matilda, widow by her second husband, Thomas Wilson, born 1769, died March 18th 1849, revered and loved as the heroic wife of Theobald Wolfe.
Matilda’s Headstone at Green Wood Cemetery Brooklyn
It was unveiled by Ireland’s President, Mary Robinson on October 8th 1996.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
THE PALE RAMPART AT CLONGOWES WOOD COLLEGE. BY
The castle at Clongowes Wood College was built around 1450 by the Eustace family. Originally it was a Pale castle built to protect the English land from incursions by the Irish clans in search of cattle and plunder. There are remains of the Pale on Clongowes land in close proximity to the castle. The Pale was first proposed in 1435 as a result of a report to the English king that it was only in the area around Dublin, “scarcely 30 miles in length and 20 miles in breadth, that a man might safely go to answer the king’s writ and to do his commandments”.
West of the Pale was inhabited by the native Irish who ignored English laws and customs. East of it lay the English land — consisting principally of counties Dublin, Louth, Meath and Kildare — which was organised on the model of feudal England. The fertile land of the Pale was surrounded by the Wicklow Mountains, the stronghold of the O’Byrne and the O’Toole clans, and the Bog of Allen, home of the O’Moore and the O’Connor clans. During the centuries prior to the building of the Pale the counties of Meath and Kildare suffered many incursions by the O’Connors from Offaly who extracted “Black Rents” from the inhabitants. In 1298 the O’Connor clan burnt down the village of Mainham and massacred all the 30
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 residents. The Pale was eventually built in response to such incursions in an effort to protect the animals and inhabitants of the English land. The word Pale comes from the Latin word palus, or stake. Stakes at the time were used to mark boundaries and make fences. In the 15th century the word came to mean fenced enclosures and hence the area where the English were enclosed became known as the Pale. The boundary was defined by an Act of Parliament in 1488 and in 1494 the actual Pale rampart was ordered to be constructed by Poynings’ Parliament in Drogheda. The rampart was to consist of an earthen bank at least 6 feet high surrounded by a double ditch. The top of the bank was to be flat and wide enough to serve as a footpath, a bridle-path or even a road in some places. Parts of it were to be topped by a wooden palisade to offer extra security against attacks by the hostile Irish. According to the law every able-bodied inhabitant living within the Pale was obliged to assist in its construction and was remitted a year’s rent for his labour. The lands immediately to the west of the Pale rampart were called marchlands or the marches. These lands were a type of frontier or buffer zone between the Irish and the English settlers. In fact, they turned out to be a war zone and, as a result, were virtually uninhabitable. A line of castles was built near the rampart at Maynooth, Rathcoffey, Clongowes Wood and Blackhall to further protect the Pale. The Lord Marcher of Leinster was the Earl of Kildare whose job it was to defend this part of the Pale from attacks by the O’Connors from the midlands and the O’Byrnes and O’Tooles from the Wicklow mountains. There are two well preserved stretches of the Pale boundary on Clongowes land. The first section begins at the east gate of the present farmyard and runs for nearly 500 yards to the lane at Rathcoffey. The 31
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 second and best known and best preserved section between Clongowes and Capdoo Commons starts in the grounds of the college, just southwest of the castle and runs for over half a mile from north-west to southeast towards the Gollymochy river, perhaps intending to make the river part of the defence. Overall, the rampart was not a great success and within fifty years of its construction it had contracted considerably from its original dimensions in 1488. The Irish clans attacked frequently, breached the earthworks on many occasions, and continued to rustle the cattle and plunder and burn the towns and villages. By 1537 the Pale had shrunk so much that its western extremity only reached as far as Leixlip. By that date Clongowes land was well outside the Pale. It is hard to believe that the presentday modest and overgrown earthen bank which transects Clongowes land was built to demarcate the western limit of English laws, customs and social structures over five hundred years ago. Once abandoned, the Pale deteriorated Section of the Pale on the lands of Clongowes Wood rapidly and faded into oblivion as an important line of demarcation. However, in some areas where it wasn’t destroyed by local farmers it assumed the function of a field boundary. Although neglected and overgrown for centuries the rampart on Clongowes land received a new lease of life. It became a short-cut from Clane to Clongowes Wood College when the Jesuits founded Clongowes and began ministering to the people of Clane, i.e. visiting the sick, hearing confessions, etc. This revival was brought about by an extraordinary event which occurred in the early 1820s. In 1821 a new Parish Priest was appointed to Clane parish. He disliked the Jesuits and he was unpopular with his parishioners. Very soon he became aware that great numbers of his parishioners were attending religious services and especially confessions at Clongowes. The Jesuits had the name of being lenient confessors and as a result were very popular with the local people. Many flocked to Clongowes and crowds queued for hours to have their confessions heard, much 32
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 to the annoyance of the Parish Priest who complained to the Bishop and implored him to intervene, which he duly did. This resulted in the withdrawal of the faculty of hearing confessions from the Jesuits, much to the annoyance of the parishioners. The dispute trundled on for some time and eventually the Bishop, under pressure from the locals came up with a unique and novel solution. He introduced a ticket system for confessions. If a parishioner wanted to go to confession to the Jesuits he had to get a ticket signed by his parochial clergyman giving him permission to do so. The ticket had also to be signed by the Jesuit confessor thus proving the penitent had been to confession. This solution was most unsatisfactory for all concerned. Fortunately, the dispute ended in 1824 when the Parish Priest of Clane was transferred to another parish and the Bishop allowed the Jesuits to resume their normal parish duties. Once the controversy ceased the old rampart of the Pale once again became thronged with Clane parishioners making their way from the village to the People’s Church, especially on Sundays. The pathway on top of the rampart was the shortest and quickest way to access Clongowes from Clane and so the custom of “walking the rampart” to Clongowes persisted right throughout the 19th Century. The tradition of people from Clane attending Sunday Mass in the People’s Church was well established in James Joyce’s time in Clongowes in the 1880s. This is evidenced by the following passage from “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man” when Stephen Dedalus (the hero of the novel) allowed his mind to wander during night prayer in the chapel, (i.e. The People’s Church). “There was a cold night smell in the chapel. But it was a holy smell. It was not the smell of the old peasants who knelt at the back of the chapel at Sunday Mass. That was a smell of air and rain and turf and corduroy. But they were very holy peasants. They breathed behind him on his neck and sighed as they prayed. They lived in Clane, a fellow said.” Walking along the rampart was easier in the winter months but with the rapid growth of fresh vegetation in summer the pathway became overgrown and difficult to negotiate. Usually, the first person on the pathway would slash the long grass with a stick and clear the path for those following on. At the same time as the locals were accessing the college via the rampart the students were visiting the village to shop for tuck, also via the rampart. So the old Pale boundary became a well worn track in both directions between college and village. 1932 saw the completion and opening of the 1929 Building in the college. This project was one of enormous magnitude and was eagerly anticipated by the people of the locality who looked forward to several years of secure and well-paid employment in what was then a very difficult economic environment. In the absence of modern machinery 33
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 the work was labour-intensive and provided jobs not only for many locals but also for numerous stone masons from Ballyknockan, Co. Wicklow, who stayed locally in “digs”. Once again the Pale became an important routeway for those workers who lived in the village and who used the rampart as a short-cut from their residences to the college. The problem of the lush summer growth also faced the workmen as they made their way on top of the rampart to the building site. However, youngsters from the locality, anxious to earn a few pence, cut down the overgrowth with sticks. This was usually done on Friday evenings when the workmen were flush with their weekly wages and their generosity knew no bounds. Clongowes Wood College has always provided lots of employment for the inhabitants of Clane and the surrounding area, both in the college and on the farm. During the 1950s and 1960s many of the pupils of Clane Boys Primary School helped out on the farm during the summer holidays and on weekends in September, earning some pocket-money in the process. The quickest and shortest route to the college for the boys was still along the Pale. They would head off up the rampart in the early morning and pick potatoes or thin turnips all day long until evening time. It was back-breaking work and every penny of their pocket money was hard-earned and well deserved. Gangs of boys also gathered mushrooms in August and September. These were plentiful on Clongowes land and were especially abundant in the huge Brickfield which was fortunately located right beside the rampart. The college dump situated between the rampart and the Brickfield proved to be a veritable “Aladdin’s Cave” for the young Clane boys during their forays on to Clongowes land. All kinds of bric-a-brac were rescued from the dump by the young foragers. The most popular items were the comics, especially the Beano and the Dandy. Other items which proved popular were football boots and jerseys which although discarded by the Clongowes students, were in good condition. Rumour has it that several future Co. Kildare footballers got their first pair of football boots from the Clongowes dump! With the proliferation of motor cars and the upgrading of our roads the rampart as a pathway declined quickly and dramatically. Today it is overgrown with thick vegetation, almost impenetrable to man and beast.
REFERENCES. The Pale in the Donadea Area. Oughterany, 1993. Seamus Cullen. The Rampart of the Pale. Clongownian 1895. Rev. M. Devitt, S.J. Clane, the village we knew. 2006. Bryan Sammon, Paddy Behan, Liam Burke. A Short History of Clongowes Wood College. 2011. Brendan Cullen. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. James Joyce. A History of Clane G.A.A. A Century. Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LURGAN MAN’S POIGNANT JOURNEY SOMME BATTLEFIELDS. BY
In late September a group of 50 people from both Federations in Ireland travelled to Leuven in Belgium as part of a sponsored visit to the European Parliament in Brussels and a nostalgic look at the main WWI battle sites in France and Belgium. A number had visited some or all of the sites in earlier visits but one young Lurgan man was making his first trip to the battlefields and he had a particular mission in mind — to try to locate the cemetery and grave where a great uncle had been buried following his death in battle in 1917. This young man, James ‘Jimbo’ Conway, was in many ways an unusual visitor to a British military cemetery in France and much of his background had militated against any close identification with the battlefield casualties of WW1. Jimbo had been brought up in a Republican enclave in Lurgan and had flirted a bit at anti authority activities. His father had died in 1974, a few months after being beaten up by a British army patrol, and many of his friends and neighbours had suffered from police and paramilitary harassment. Jimbo, however, began looking beyond his immediate neighbourhood and sought links with the wider community in Lurgan and further afield.
He developed a deep interest in cross community work including local history and led tours of the local mixed cemetery. This led naturally to his searching further into his own roots and he began building on the 35
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 inherited stories of a great uncle who had won a major award during World War I, before being killed at the Front in the year 1917. This man had been a brother of Jimbo’s grandmother and he felt that one way he could pay tribute to her memory and to salute the bravery and courage of this dead soldier was to visit the grave and help preserve the family memory of this decorated but largely forgotten soldier. Jimbo had carried out considerable research and his story is one that many others from the nationalist community could easily identify with. One lesson he has learned was to be cautious about the accuracy of records, especially over names. His grandmother’s family name was McAlinden, located in the townland of Derrytagh North outside Lurgan but the name was frequently recorded in army records as McAlindon and did not always show up in electronic record searches. The importance of family memories was significant and while Jimbo’s grandmother Elizabeth never talked about the War she made sure that the photograph of the brothers in military uniform was hanging properly on the living room wall. It was well known in family history that four brothers had taken part in the War, three as soldiers and one in the Navy. Army service was a way of life for many young men in the late 19th century, since regular employment opportunities were scarce in the impoverished communities of the time, and the McAlinden brothers had joined up when they reached adulthood. Jimbo hopes to pursue his research further into military records but again family tradition helps to fill out the picture. Some at least of the brothers had seen service in the Boer War and it is likely that they were Reservists at the outbreak of the World War in August 1914 and were soon called up into active service. Jimbo’s investigations so far have concentrated on the two brothers who had been killed during the war. John had been sent to the war front shortly after his joining date of 21st August, 1914. He was recorded as missing on 26th October, 1914, following a major battle at Neuve Chapelle in which his outfit appears 36
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 to have been wiped out in a surprise German attack. It was only much later that the army officially accepted the designation ‘presumed dead’ and the family was notified accordingly in the early summer of 1916. A report in the Lurgan Mail of 17th June reported that the War Office had informed his wife the previous week and sent home his personal effects. Jimbo’s recent research has unearthed a written account by a neighbour and relative of John’s, a sergeant Tom McAlindon, later to be promoted a Captain and a winner of the military cross. The account was written to John’s mother on 1st November, 1914, and reproduced in a book, Two Brothers Two Wars, by Thomas McAlindon. This recorded that John had been bayoneted in a back room in one of the village houses and placed the family friend at the scene shortly after the attack. Tom McAlindon’s letter makes clear that he was well acquainted with the family and that he had assured the mother two years previously that he would look out for John in the army and had done so as well as possible. But such care was not always possible in wartime and Tom admitted that it often was a matter of luck whether a person survived or not. The letter suggests a terrible attack but Tom reassured the mother that he was with John when he died and hoped she would take some consolation from that. Tom also made clear that he was well aware of the growing opposition at home to the War but feels that the German cruelty when invading Belgium must be avenged. He accepted that they had not thought much about the seriousness of war ‘when we had enlisted at seventeen, it was just a job and a bit of adventure. It’s a lot more than that now I’m afraid’. The letter ended with Tom imagining the mother opening the feared telegram from the war and suggesting that he could well empathise with her as if she were his own mother and recognise her sorrow at the news. The letter suggests that John had enlisted two years earlier and a newspaper report also suggests that he was married. Likely his mother Rose asked that Tom would look out for John in the army and help ensure his safe return. Unfortunately that did not happen and John became one of the statistics of an unknown soldier buried in a foreign land. His brother James had also been in the army for some time before the War began and he appears to have been 25 years of age in 1914. More was known about James since he had been in his third year in the war when he met his death. His medal collection had become a treasured family possession and Jimbo had often longed for his grandmother to tell him something about this war hero who had appeared to adopt 37
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 a cavalier attitude towards the fighting, despite the increasingly high casualty rate. James was awarded a military cross in late 1914 or early1915 for bravery on the battlefield. There is some uncertainty about why exactly the medal was awarded — helping wounded men back to base, exceptional bravery in the face of enemy fire or providing assistance to a wounded officer. The newspaper account of his death in action suggests that the award was ‘early in the war’ and that the award was the Russian Medal of St George for gallantry, being one of a small company to volunteer to bring up ammunition to his column when it had run out. The report continued that the medal had only recently been sent home to his parents and the pre battle Will, drawn up and signed by soldiers before a major battle, was dated 28th February, 1917. In this will James left all his possessions to his mother Rose. He died that same day and his property would have been sent home shortly afterwards, together with any money owing to him for wartime wages, in this case £5. Records showed that he was buried in La Neuville Communal Cemetery, Corbie in the Somme area of France and his age was given as 28 years old. Jimbo’s research had also unearthed much more about great uncle James and his war time comrades. He was apparently a bit of a poet and with a few of his fellow soldiers composed and no doubt recited a poem on his company titled The Lurgan Volunteer. It is the sort of battle song that would have been used to lift the men’s spirits when things were looking bad and highlighted the comradeship and togetherness of the Lurgan and Armagh volunteers who, it was claimed, ‘had turned out in their hundreds when they heard the bugles call’. Jimbo has also tried to match the poetic spirit of his grand uncle and in a sombre poem called Jimmy’s Boots he casts his mind back to the War and contrasts the pride that the newly enrolled volunteers might have in their polished boots with the remnants of that footwear to be found in the battlefields -: Boots that rotted in cold muddy trenches, Forgotten feet forever in Somme soil. In much of Ireland the soldiers of World War I were quickly forgotten by all except the immediate families and few of these were in a position to commemorate the wartime achievements of their family members. So James McAlinden lay unknown but not forgotten in a Somme graveyard for 99 years and it was to rectify that omission that Jimbo travelled to Belgium and France in September 2016. Jimbo had the details of the cemetery where James McAlinden was buried and prepared for a possible visit to the grave, bringing with him family mementoes and a small bag of soil from his great uncle’s native 38
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 townland of Derrytagh North to help link him back to his homeland. He knew that the tour was not scheduled to visit the actual cemetery but hoped that he might find some way of seeking out this grave that had remained unvisited for 99 years. In conversation with the group leaders it was decided to seek the help of the guide, Julie, who was engaged to show the visiting group the main sites in the Somme area and she was quickly able to locate the cemetery on a map. It was a few kilometres away from the planned Somme site visits but could be reached quite quickly by taxi. So it was that Jimbo and one of the other men on the trip set off with a French speaking taxi driver to get to the cemetery at Corbie and find the grave of James McAlinden. Then the possible dream result disappeared. The driver had not identified the correct cemetery and deposited Jimbo and his companion at a village cemetery where there happened to be a section given over to war graves. Following a search of the headstones and a check of the cemetery records it was clear that Jimbo was in the wrong place but language problems with the driver and the lack of adequate time meant that the search had to be called off. The visit had failed and the deeply felt sympathy of the other trip members was clear to see. What could be done to allay the disappointment? Once again Julie, the guide, was called in to help and she volunteered immediately to go herself to the cemetery on her next day off work and locate the grave of Jimmy McAlinden. She showed her fluency by reading aloud The Lurgan Volunteers poem written by Jimmy McAlinden and his fellow troopers and her mastery of the Armagh phonetics and dialect was a pleasure to hear. True to her word Julie sent back the photographs of the McAlinden grave where she had placed Jimbo’s poem and family mementoes and scattered the Derrytagh soil. It is well worth recording the message that she sent to accompany the images: Dear Jim Yesterday I have been at the grave of James McAlinden. I have left the photo, the pin (poem?) and I have told him that you have brought some sand from the lake where he has played when he was young and that it is not far from the place where he stays now … Julie And when Jimbo thanked her for her kindness she replied: Thank you for accepting me to leave the photo and the poem and to tell me your family’s story. All the best, Julie 39
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 So ended one chapter in the search for the soldier’s grave and Jimbo has promised to make a visit there to commemorate the 100th anniversary of James McAlinden’s death. There is more to tell on the story of the McAlinden brothers in the War and on the two who survived the conflict but that will be left to James ‘Jimbo’ Conway at a future meeting with his fellow travellers from the trip to the Somme in 2016.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
THE MULTIFACETED HISTORY FAMILY BY
MYLES DUFFY, RATHMICHAEL HISTORICAL SOCIETY
Mention the name Synge to any Irish person and the chances are that they will respond with a reference to John Millington Synge, The Playboy of the Western World and the Abbey Theatre and perhaps leave it at that. But the Synge family contributed far more than an important playwright to Ireland. They moved to Ireland from Shropshire in the early 17th century. Several members of the family became clergymen in the Established Church, five became bishops and one an archbishop, some concurrently in different dioceses. Others forged close business relationships among the landed gentry, some practised law and became members of the Irish parliament. Several pioneered the establishment of the Plymouth Brethren movement and one became an educational pioneer.
JOHN MILLINGTON SYNGE (1871-1908) John Millington Synge, iconic playwright, poet and prose writer cofounded the Abbey Theatre in 1904 in Molesworth Street Dublin with WB Yeats and Augusta, Lady Gregory. Its debut production was staged in Molesworth Hall. Synge became agnostic despite being the scion of a family gripped with deep evangelical fervour and having a grandfather who was a ‘fire and brimstone’ rector in Schull, Co Cork John Millington Synge, the eighth and youngest child of John Hatch Synge (1823-1872) and his wife Kathleen Traill (1838-1908), was born in 2 Newtown Villas, Rathfarnham. He spent time on the Aran Islands having been persuaded by Yeats to move there from Paris to observe local characters and their dialects. His early childhood, in the care of his widowed mother, was spent at 4 Orwell Park, Rathgar, next door to his grandmother. His other Dublin addresses included 15 Maxwell Road, Rathmines, 31 Crosthwaite Park and Glendalough House, Adelaide Road, Kingstown, where he spent his final years and wrote The Playboy 41
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 of the Western World. Synge died as a consequence of Hodgkin’s Disease when he was only 37-years old, six months after the death of his mother and was waked in Glendalough House, prior to being buried in Mount Jerome Cemetery. Both as a child and young adult Synge typically spent summers in Co Wickow, where his ancestors were a prominent gentry family for over a century. He was 21 years old in 1892 when he met and fell in love with Cherrie Matheson, a near neighbour in Crosthwaite Park, who was a guest at the family holiday retreat at Castle Kevin near Annamoe. Cherrie was a close relative of Charles Louis Matheson (born 1851), KC, Serjeant-at-Law, of Greystones and Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin, whose name is perpetuated in the legal firm Matheson, formerly known as Matheson, Ormsby & Prentice, a legal practice that traces its roots as far back as 1825. Charles was a leading member of the Plymouth Brethren in Greystones. Cherrie was also a member of the Plymouth Brethren but could not reconcile her deep religious conviction with the agnosticism of Synge, causing their relationship to perish. Shortly after meeting Cherrie, they were walking in Dublin one evening when Synge opined, I am a poor man but I feel if I live I shall be rich; I feel there is that in me which will be of value to the world. But the Synge ancestors were rich, influential and prosperous. The great-grandparents of John Millington Synge were Francis Synge MP (1761-1831) and Elizabeth Hatch (1756-1809), both of whom were grandchildren of Rt Rev Nicholas Synge DD (1693-1771), Bishop of Killaloe and Kilfenora and owner of several thousand acres in the vicinity of Dysert, Co Clare.
JOHN HATCH MP A major source of the Synge wealth and influence was John Hatch (1720-1797), the father of Synge’s great-grandmother, Elizabeth Hatch. He inherited considerable assets from his own father, Henry Hatch, the land agent of the Archbishop of Dublin. He also inherited from his father the right to manage land in Roundwood and Moneystown Co Wicklow owned by absentee landlord and diplomat Sir William Temple (1628-1699). Temple was grandson of his namesake, Sir William Temple (1555-1627), the first lay Provost of the University of Dublin in whose memory the Temple Bar district in Dublin is named. Hatch was called to the Bar in 1749. He leased sites in 1759 from Joseph Leeson, 1st Earl of Milltown in 1759, shortly after Leeson completed the construction of Russborough House. He built houses on Hatch Street, which bears his own name. Hatch subsequently developed Harcourt Street in the early 1770s naming it after the Lord Lieutenant, Simon Harcourt, 1st Earl Harcourt. 42
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 He maintained a residence in Harcourt Street that was subsequently occupied by High School in the 1840s. He managed the Temple property in Roundwood, Co Wicklow, then a village with a dozen houses, with his cousin Sam McCracken, a close relative of Henry Joy McCracken (1767-1798) and acquired ownership of a 4,298-acre demesne extending from Roundwood to Devil’s Glen. Hatch was MP for Swords on two occasions, 1769 and 1783 and maintained a home there, called Lissen Hall. The parliamentary borough of Swords was sold to the highest bidder and the constituency was characterized as the very worst species of representation, where neither property, nor family connections, nor the good opinion of the neighbourhood, nor any other good species of influence would weigh against adventurers from Dublin with large purses. Swords was one of seven ‘potwalloper’ parliamentary constituencies in Ireland. The right to vote in a ‘potwalloper’ borough was granted to the male head of any household with a hearth sufficiently large to boil (wallop) a cauldron (pot) and the Swords electorate numbered less than 200. The six other ‘potwalloper’ constituencies in Ireland were: Baltimore, Lisburn, Antrim, Knocktopher Co Kilkenny, Newry and Downpatrick.
FRANCIS SYNGE MP Hatch’s son-in-law, Francis Synge became MP for Swords, after the death of John Hatch, along with Marcus Beresford from 1798 until the enactment of the Act of Union when the constituency was abolished. Synge voted against the Act of Union. The Swords constituency ceased to exist after the Act of Union. Francis Synge commissioned the eminent architect, Francis Johnston in 1804 to renovate and extend his residence, Glanmore Castle, an elegant castellated mansion directly overlooking Devil’s Glen, a deep long rocky gorge with steep sides lined with trees, between which the Vartry River rushes on its way to the northern outskirts of Wicklow town. The roar of the Varty through the gorge before the Vartry Reservoir was constructed was more intense and is said to have sounded like ‘a Satanic power announcing some great doom’ – giving the Glen its popular name. The demesne of Glanmore Castle included Roundwood Park (built 1720), subsequently the home of former President Seán T O’Kelly and Galen Weston. Johnston was the architectural heir to Thomas Cooley, James Wyatt and James Gandon. His landmark projects included the adaptation in 1803 of the Parliament Building to become the headquarters of the Bank 43
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 of Ireland; the design of Nelson’s Pillar (1806-1808) and the design of the GPO (1814-1818).
JOHN HATCH SYNGE John Hatch Synge (1788-1845) inherited Glanmore Castle on the death of his father. A graduate of Magdalen College Oxford, he became a barrister. He married a wealthy heiress, Isabella Hamilton who died in 1830, the year before the death of his own father. John returned to Glanmore with his seven children from Devon and married Fanny Steele, a sister of his brother’s wife with whom he also had seven children. He spent lavishly on the development of Glanmore but was declared bankrupt in 1845 shortly before his own death John Hatch Synge spent time in Spain and Portugal in 1812 observing aspects of Wellington’s exploits in the Peninsular War. When returning from his continental travels via Italy in 1814 he made his way to the Pestalozzi Institute in Yverdon Switzerland where he remained for three months. John Pestalozzi was an expert in child-centred early education. Synge was so impressed with the joy and contentment of the children he saw in the Institute that he took the initiative to establish a Pestalozzi school at Glanmore and he became known locally as ‘Pestalozzi John’. By 1818 John Hatch Synge and his friends Francis Hutchinson Synge, John Vesey Parnell ( later Lord Congleton) and Edward Cronin had become influenced by the teaching of John Nelson Darby, formerly a Church of Ireland curate at Delgany who seceded from Anglicanism, and they joined him, becoming early leaders of the Plymouth Brethren movement. The movement began at the Fitzwilliam Square home of Francis Hutchinson but as interest grew the pioneers rented space at Aungier Street Dublin in 1829 to expand the Brethren. Glanmore Castle also became an important centre for Brethren gatherings in the 1830’s attracting clergy who severed their connection to the Established Church.
When John Hatch Synge died in 1845 Glanmore was inherited by his eldest surviving son, Francis Synge (1819-1878), who was also a member of the Plymouth Brethren. In common with many estates in the Famine era, it had become heavily indebted and it was sold under the terms of the Encumbered Estates Act of 1848 but was partially repurchased in 1850. Francis had let much of the Glanmore land to tenant farmers retaining some 1,800 acres for his own use. When Francis died in 1878 Glanmore Castle became the home of his widow Editha who subsequently married Major Theodore Webber-Gardiner, another member of Plymouth Brethren. 44
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The next Synge family member to inherit Glanmore Castle was Robert Anthony Synge (1858-1943), older brother of the playwright’s father. He had spent many years residing at a ranch in Argentina until 1900 before returning to the Castle permanently. The last Synge owner of Glanmore Castle was Robert’s daughter, Kathleen Frances Anne Synge (1896-1954), the playwright’s first cousin who was unmarried. Meanwhile, the playwright’s father, also named John Hatch Synge (1823-1872) and also a barrister spent much of his adult life in Dublin and died from the disfiguring disease of smallpox at the age of 49. His 34-year old widow, Kathleen (1838-1908), was left with five surviving children aged under 14 years. The playwright was under one year old when his father died. Kathleen Synge moved to Orwell Park, Rathgar to avail of the support of her mother, Ann Trail, the widow of the fiery Rev Robert Trail. John Millington Synge was born into an evangelical world and into a conservative, insular, wealthy and privileged Anglo-Irish establishment which excluded itself from the cut and thrust of Nationalist Ireland. He embraced an agnostic lifestyle from his youth and although musically talented he chose to focus on his literary talents. His best productions resonate with the fine detail and nuance of a man who observed everything carefully, transforming what could have been minor details into enduring works of art and literature and that was the source of a unique Irish identity — reflecting his value to the world.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
MISSION FROM AMERICA THE 1916 RISING BY
Much of the planning for the 1916 Rising is shrouded in secrecy and uncertainty and the non involvement of Tyrone volunteers in Easter week certainly epitomises the limited information available to both the rank and file and to the county leadership. Dr McCartan was regarded as the link figure between the Dublin leadership and the local rank and file and his membership of the IRB supreme council should have ensured some involvement in the planning. It is tempting, however, to conclude that outlying areas away from Dublin, and especially those in Ulster, were not regarded as central to the rebellion planning and perhaps best left out of the equation. It is suggested that both Thomas Clarke and James Connolly, central figures in the overall planning for rebellion, foresaw the danger of an Ulster uprising sparking a civil war with the unionist population and therefore they envisaged only a subordinate role for places like Tyrone and Belfast. There can be little doubt that the local volunteer leadership were aware of some planning for rebellion but it is less certain if they knew anything more than that. And the accumulation of things going wrong as the Rising approached suggests that even the IRB leadership were trying to activate a programme that had been hastily put together in hope but with little back up if things went wrong.
In Tyrone there was an early introduction on how the plans could go wrong. An emigrant from Aughabrack, near Plumbridge, arrived back in Ireland on the Tuesday before Easter with a message from Clan na Gael in America about the earlier than expected arrival of arms from Germany. The Dublin leadership had decided late on in the planning that weapons should not be landed before Easter Sunday, simultaneously with the uprising, and had assumed that the Germans were aware of the changed timetable. It was then discovered that the Germans might not have been made aware of the change and emissaries were sent from America to alert the IRB leadership that the German weapons would arrive on the Wednesday/Thursday and plans to meet the weapon shipment should be altered accordingly. A number of different messengers were dispatched and the Tyrone man, James Smith, arrived first at Liverpool where he was closely searched and questioned about his plans and destination. He had been sent by Joseph McGarrity, an influential Tyrone emigrant who had settled and prospered in Philadelphia and had been a firm supporter of Clan na Gael and committed to an insurrection in Ireland. 46
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Padraig Pearse had visited McGarrity in Philadelphia in the summer of 1914 and both men had shared their hopes that the emerging volunteer movement in Ireland would provide the strike force for an early insurrection. Pearse had also received a substantial donation to help him maintain his Irish school of St Enda’s and there was a strong bond between the two men. Smith was only one of a number of messengers sent to alert the IRB about the changed plans for the arrival of the weapons and there is no evidence that he was involved in any way in the planning or in the confidence of either Clan na Gael or the IRB in Dublin. Following his grilling in Liverpool he embarked for Dublin where he was again questioned before being allowed to continue. There is some ambiguity about how his instructions were carried; one version claims that they were hidden in the heel of his shoe while another suggests that they had been memorised before departure. The former seems the more likely; the message was said to include a code to signal to the German weapon-carrying ship, the Aud, and this would seem to be too fraught with uncertainty on whether it would be delivered accurately. No doubt he was now a well marked figure and Smith would have been closely followed as he made his way to Thomas Clarke’s shop in Dublin to deliver McGarrity’s message. He was unknown to Clarke who had every right to be suspicious of a strange man with an Ulster accent looking to speak to one of the prime movers in the impending rebellion. Clarke disappeared out of the back of the shop into the living quarters and poor Smith was left wondering what he should do next. He had a sense of the urgency of his mission and felt that he should seek out some other member of the IRB to enable the information in his possession to be delivered. Not knowing any of the Dublin leadership and feeling that his every move was being watched Smith decided to go North and deliver his message to Dr Pat McCartan, a close friend of McGarrity and a known figure in the advanced nationalist movement in Tyrone. He made his way to Belfast and then to Derry, facing questioning at each stop from the RIC and arrived on the Wednesday morning at his home at Doorat near Plumbridge.
COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS There is no suggestion that Smith’s family were in any way tied in to the planning for rebellion and they were as afraid as he was himself of becoming implicated in something dangerous. Following family consultation and possibly after consulting with some local who might have been ‘in the know’ it was agreed that James Smith should make contact with Dr McCartan who had his dispensary at Gortin, about 8 miles away. A family member carried the message of ‘a recently arrived visitor from Philadelphia’ seeking to meet the doctor but he clearly was 47
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 wary of entrapment and made arrangements for a Plumbridge taxi driver to bring Smith to his surgery that evening. The taxi driver, Pete McCullagh, was not too happy about this fare; clearly he knew that Dr McCartan was seen by the police as a dangerous man but he eventually agreed to bring Smith to Gortin where the exchange took place on the Wednesday night. Smith was now relieved of his responsibilities and could return home with some ease of mind. On the Friday, however, the RIC were back at his home questioning him about Roger Casement and whether he knew or had met the man. Casement had been arrested in Kerry the previous evening and it is possible that the police felt that Smith’s visit to Ireland at this time and the company he was associating with could be a link to something bigger. It appears, however, to have been nothing more than a ‘fishing’ visit and the family were left in peace thereafter. McCartan was now placed in a difficult position. He was the IRB leader in Tyrone and was a member of the Supreme Council of the organization, though not on the powerful military council that was organising the rebellion. The information had to be brought to the attention of the Dublin leadership as soon as possible and McCartan set off the following afternoon to see Thomas Clarke and deliver the message from America. His memoirs tell of his meeting with Clarke on the Thursday evening and his delivery of the message which was received with much less attention than be had believed it merited. He was assured that another messenger had delivered the same message a day or so earlier and that arrangements had been modified accordingly. Clarke was said to have assured him that plans were well developed for the ‘Rising’ and they spent the evening in jolly comradeship. It is worth remembering that the Rising plans were kept very much under wraps and there is no suggestion that McCartan was given information about the latest happenings. It is possible that Clarke himself was not aware of the unravelling of the arrangements. Those seeking to make contact with the German arms ship had failed in their mission and the captain was about to scuttle his cargo while Roger Casement was on the point of being captured on a Kerry beach.
McCartan returned home on the Friday afternoon but already the rumours were surfacing of the arrest of Casement and the possible loss of the weapons. Some of the lesser leaders were becoming worried about how things were unfolding and McCartan decided to seek clarification on whether the planned Rising would now be able to proceed. He sent his sister and two other girls to Dublin on the Saturday to find out what was happening and to query whether there had been any change of plans. It seems that McCartan was only now recognising the enormity 48
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 of the steps that the leadership had planned and that he would have been closer to the McNeill belief that a Rising should only happen if there was a good chance of success. With the loss of weapons and the probable failure of German help to materialise the whole venture seemed doomed to failure and the leaders facing certain death. They had to be certain before rushing forward into a seemingly doomed escapade. The messengers arrived back on the Saturday night with the news that the revolt was to go ahead as planned though those in the know were certain that it could not possibly do so.
INACTION McCartan was in charge of organising the Tyrone rebellion but was hesitant about taking action. The Belfast/Antrim volunteers had arrived in Coalisland on the Saturday evening in preparation for joining up with the Tyrone men and setting off for Belcoo in Co Fermanagh from where they were to travel on to the Shannon to meet up with the Galway volunteers. Denis McCullough, also a leading figure in the IRB Supreme Council, accompanied the Antrim men and himself and McCartan decided to wait until word came back from Dublin about the latest plans or modifications in light of the changing circumstances. By Sunday afternoon word was confirmed of Eoin McNeill’s cancellation order for the volunteer mobilisation that had been arranged for Easter Sunday and both McCartan and McCullough, with the promptings of the two priests who had been most active in the movement, decided to demobilise and send the volunteers home and await further instructions. An effort was made on the Monday to reactivate the Rising plan but poor communication and the hesitancy of the leadership meant that this action had to be postponed until the Wednesday. By that stage the army had seized the ammunition from McCartan’s family home and forced the leadership into hiding. The arrest of known leaders of the Irish volunteers and of some identifiable IRB figures provided the authorities with the cover of punitive action and confirmed that the threat of armed insurrection in the North had been more a dream than a reality. A recent historian has described the failure of the northern leadership to carry out the rebellion plans as a ‘fiasco’ and probably James Smith, on his return to Philadelphia, would have agreed wholeheartedly. What was achieved by all the cloak and dagger stuff that was alien to the uneventful life that he had hitherto led and would probably return to in the years ahead? Note – the main sources used in this article come from the Smith account in the McGarrity letters, held in the National Library and Patrick McCartan’s Memoirs, published in the Clogher Record, Vol. 5, 1963-65
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
ELLEN HUTCHINS BAY (1785-1815):
THE STORY OF
FIRST FEMALE BOTANIST BY
Ellen Hutchins is a highly respected and well-known name in the specialist worlds of botany, botanical art, and the history of science, but before 2015 if you had asked anyone in Bantry, her home territory, about Ellen, unless they were a close friend of any of the Hutchins family members who still live there, the answer would have been ‘never heard of her’. Her story had been forgotten there, as in the rest of Ireland, and it is both a remarkable story and an important piece of local history. Through the initiative of the Bantry Historical Society, working with the National Parks and Wildlife Service and members of the Hutchins family, and with the support of local organisations, Ellen now has a plaque on the church wall near the site of her unmarked grave, and the Ellen Hutchins Festival during Heritage Week is an annual fixture in the West Cork diary of events. Letters and specimens of Ellen’s have been found in the Herbarium at Trinity College Dublin, and a memoir written by a niece of Ellen’s over a one hundred years ago has been published with a paper on its provenance1. An exhibition in the Botany Department of Trinity College Dublin is planned for spring 2017, with an official opening on 9th February, the 202nd anniversary of Ellen’s death.
IN A NUTSHELL
Ellen Hutchins was a pioneer in natural history and Ireland’s first female botanist. She specialised in non-flowering plants, known as cryptogams, and although she died before her thirtieth birthday, she made a significant contribution to the understanding of seaweeds, lichens, mosses and liverworts. Born at Ballylickey, on the shores of Bantry Bay in 1785, she lived there 50
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 most of her short life. From the age of twenty until illness prevented her from continuing eight years later, she devoted as much of her time as she could to the study of plants. She collected and identified them, dried and preserved them, and made detailed watercolour drawings of her finds. She is respected as a highly talented botanical artist as well as a dedicated and specialist botanist. Caring responsibilities, her own illness and family troubles occupied much of her short life. Botany provided a welcome respite and gave her companionship. She formed an exceptionally strong friendship with botanist Dawson Turner in Yarmouth, England through extensive correspondence. The letters make fascinating reading, revealing many details about their lives - Ellen’s passion for plants and love of the local area, and the literature they each enjoyed and recommended. Ellen and Dawson never met, but he named one of his daughters after Ellen and made her godmother to the child.
HER OWN WORDS
From the perspective of local history, another whole level of interest is that we hear much of Ellen’s story in her own words, with local colour and detail about her times. This is because a number of letters survive written by Ellen to two of her brothers, (these were found in 2012 among Hutchins family papers) and also a considerable volume of correspondence between Ellen and two botanists. There are a modest twelve letters to and from James Mackay of Trinity College Dublin (some of which only surfaced in 2015), and quite remarkably over one hundred and twenty letters over a seven year timeframe between Ellen and Dawson Turner, of Yarmouth on the East Anglian coast of England. Dawson Turner was the leading botanist studying seaweeds at that time, and a generous mentor to many cryptogamic botanists, including William Jackson Hooker,2 to whom he passed Ellen’s specimens of liverworts.
In 1999, a selection of forty of the Ellen Hutchins / Dawson Turner letters were published in an Occasional Paper by Professor M E Mitchell for the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin,3 and this was the first step in rediscovering Ellen’s story. Copies of the book were kindly sent to Bantry Library, and the Hutchins family locally and Bantry Historical Society members read them with great interest. However, it was not until the bicentenary of Ellen’s death, in 2015, that action was taken to celebrate Ellen’s life and achievements in her home territory of Bantry, Ballylickey and Glengarriff. What was initially planned as a couple of talks, grew into a weeklong Festival of walks, talks, exhibitions and 51
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 more. It was a huge success, drawing great crowds, and culminating in the Heritage Council giving it their Hidden Heritage Award. After a second successful Festival this year, the decision has been taken to make it an annual event in Heritage Week.
PERSON, RIGHT PLACE, RIGHT TIME
Ellen’s skills and dedication, combined with the previously unexplored wealth of flora in the Bantry Bay area, enabled her to find many new species. Her specimens (dried plants on paper) and drawings were circulated to the leading botanists of the day in Ireland, and across the British Isles. She was highly praised for her work. Plants were named after her, and her discoveries and drawings appeared in key botanical publications of the period. Her type specimens4 of seaweeds, lichens, mosses and liverworts continue to be used by botanists internationally for research - over 200 years since she collected them in Bantry Bay. Today her name appears on lists of significant Irish scientists, and Irish botanical artists.
AND DUBLIN: IN SICKNESS AND IN HEALTH Ellen’s parents were Thomas and Elinor Hutchins who lived at Ballylickey, as had her grandparents before them. Ellen was one from youngest of twenty one children born to her mother Elinor, but only six of the children survived to adulthood. Ellen’s father Thomas died when she was two, and her only sister when she was four, leaving her with a widowed mother and four brothers. Ellen was sent away to school, described in the memoir by her niece Alicia as being ‘between Dublin and Donnybrook’. While there Ellen became ill. A friend of the family and a leading figure in Dublin in natural philosophy, Dr Whitley Stokes, took her into his household and cared for her. Stokes was an incredible man, with a vast range of interests5. At this time he was Kings Professor of the practice of medicine at Trinity College Dublin. His household at 16 Harcourt St must have been a wonderful place to be, both in providing a strong work ethic and a clear moral sense of purpose, and with interesting people passing through, making for deep conversations and challenging thinking. The memoir tells us that when Ellen recovered her health and knew that she was returning home, she was dreading it, as it was such a remote rural place, with no close friends or cousins her age nearby, and she was going to miss the company in Dublin greatly. Dr Stokes recommended she took up botany, his great enthusiasm, which would keep her busy and was a healthy outdoor pursuit that would also provide productive activity indoors; examining, preserving and drawing the specimens collected. 52
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Ellen was probably requested to come back home to Ballylickey to care for her mother who was by now elderly and ill, and to help look after her brother Tom, who was disabled, described by Ellen as having ‘by a paralytic complaint lost the use of his limbs’. Ellen’s letters give a picture of her life and ‘botanising’, and how they are affected by illness, family members, weather and the seasons. Her own health is poor much of the time, and she is also very concerned by the ill health of family members and friends. In her letters sometimes we hear her being enthusiastic and positive, and at other times resigned and exhausted. “My Mother is but pretty well. She is very weak. I fear the winter for her and Tom. I cannot think of it without horror at best it must be gloomy but the thoughts of what pain and depression of spirits it will bring on them.” Ellen to Sam 29 Sept 1807 “I have been called again & again to breakfast & have written in such a hurry that I hardly know what I have said. I can only be sure that I alway feel your truly obliged and faithful E Hutchins.” EH to DT Sept 4th 1809 “How I long for the summer mornings when I can have many undisturbed hours before breakfast.” EH to DT Jan 10th 1810 “My dear Mother’s health and age confines me almost entirely to the house. I can very seldom spare a few hours to ramble about.” EH to DT March 8th 1811 “I am quite strong and out before 7 o’clock in the morning with the workmen.” “I am very busy planting & gardening & making alterations outside, which I delight in.” EH to DT March 11th 1811 Ellen’s letters to her brother, Sam, who was just a year younger than her, include details about family, friends and neighbours. “Lord and Lady Bantry live very retired and are scarcely spoken of in the country.” Ellen to Sam 3rd April 1807 “Mrs Taylor spent a day here lately. She came out to breakfast and did not go home till evening, was in excellent spirits and very pleasant.” Ellen to Sam 11th Sept 1807 “Arthur [another brother] and Mrs Hutchins [Matilda] are gone to Cork where she expects soon to give you another nephew or niece.” Ellen to Sam 29 Sept 1807 In one letter, Ellen sends Sam half of a five pound note, and asks him to tell her when he has received it and then she will send the other half. Another letter has a horrendous partial description of the treatment for toothache that Ellen received from an apothecary. Some words are 53
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 illegible because of ‘cross hatching’, where a full page of writing is turned sideways and written over. This was done because paper was precious, and a two page letter cost twice the amount to post. Ellen writes about the difficulties and slowness of sending letters and parcels, and getting purchases from Cork or Dublin.
CALL FOR HELP ON SEAWEEDS
Ellen often felt lonely, living fairly remotely and without anyone nearby who shared her enthusiasm for natural history. When botanist James Mackay of Trinity College Dublin came to Ballylickey on his tour of West Cork, she was delighted to have contact with someone who shared her ‘pleasure in plants’. He suggested that she collect seaweeds and help him in this area of study, and later in a letter to fellow botanist Dawson Turner, Mackay said: “I am a little proud of having been instrumental in setting her a going in a branch of botany in which she has made such a conspicuous figure – she had never examined nor dried a sea plant until I gave her the hint in the summer of 1805 when I had the pleasure of spending a few days with her at Ballylickey.” Ellen and Mackay wrote to each other, sending specimens, and comparing notes on their finds. Ellen’s beautifully preserved seaweed specimens sent to James Mackay are still in the herbarium at Trinity College Dublin. All Ellen’s botanising was in the Bantry Bay area, but she seems to have managed to get to fairly remote places in her search for plants. Mackay’s first letter to her includes: “I found the Carex we got on Sugar Loaf when crossing the Priests Leap and took plants of it which I sent with some others from Killarney to Dublin; so that you need not ascend Sugar Loaf a second time in order to fetch it.” Mackay to Ellen 10th Sept 1805 From Ellen’s letters to her brothers, we have her own description of her botanising: “I send my plants to Mr Mackay, a very good botanist who was sent by the college [Trinity College Dublin] to this and many other parts of Ireland and has made great discoveries in botany. He has now the care of the new college botanic garden. He gives me all the information that I want & sends the plants to those who describe and publish. I also send a great number of Dr Stokes & have made him a very fine collection. He says he is quite astonished at the progress I have made.” Ellen to Emanuel 18th April 1807 54
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Ellen Hutchins was a skilled artist as well as botanist. Her watercolour drawings of seaweeds are exquisite - very detailed and highly accurate. Before the advent of photography, drawings were crucial for sharing scientific knowledge about plants. Many botanists engaged a botanical illustrator, others had the skills to do the drawing themselves. The first mention of Ellen drawing plants is in July 1808, in a letter to Dawson Turner, she wrote of a seaweed, Fucus tomentosus: ‘fearing that drying may alter its appearance I have attempted to draw it as it appeared when recent.’ EH to DT 27th July 1808 In December, she wrote: ‘Dear Sir, Your most interesting letter found me employed finishing the drawing you wished for of Fucus tomentosus. I have sent it with drawings of some Confervae. You must not expect very much from me for alas my trembling hand has not “the ease which marks security to please”6. These are the very first that I have attempted.’ EH to DT 2nd December 1808 She need not have worried about her ability to draw nor the Specimen of Fucus sanguineus (Delesseria reception that her drawings would sanguinea); collected by Ellen Hutchins, receive. Dawson Turner had the Bantry Bay over 200 years ago drawing engraved and it is the first illustration in Volume 3 of his book, Historia Fuci. However Ellen continued to be diffident about her abilities: ‘My dear Sir, I have just washed the pencil [small hair brush] that finished drawing Fucus Kaliformis, before my heart and fingers cool I shall send it with the few other drawings this parcel contains for you. I hope most warmly that the little I now send may give you pleasure. Ought not Fucus Wigghii to reside with the Rivularia? What an exquisite little beauty it is!’ EH to DT 9th October 1809 In reply, Dawson Turner wrote: ‘I feel and own myself in every sense of the word infinitely your debtor, &, not least, for the beautiful set of drawings contained in your last pacquet. I never in my life saw anything that pleased me better than the Conferva Equisetifolia, & the Fucus kaliformis 55
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 is so little inferior to it that I feel more than half tempted to have it engraved. ... Fucus Griffithsiea, asparagoides and wigghi are excellent. … While you send me such drawings as these I shall go on eternally begging, & shall cease to ask you for plants. ‘ DT to EH 12th November 1809 Ellen seems to have been largely self-taught in the art of botanical illustration. She would have been taught to draw and paint at school. Once immersed in her botany studies, she would have seen the work of other botanical illustrators in their publications, and indeed, sometimes commented critically on them in her letters. Ellen’s drawings are incredibly lifelike, and in a letter she tells of an incident when the young girl who helped her on the rocks with her boxes, and in the house with preserving specimens, tried to pick up a coloured drawing off a piece of paper, thinking it was the real plant. Dawson Turner was sufficiently impressed with Ellen’s drawing that he sent her specimens to draw, and lent her his own copy of his book on Irish mosses7 into which he had bound the original drawings, next to the engravings. ‘You have sent me a great treasure of mosses for drawing, enough to employ me for a considerable length of time.’ EH to DT 2nd November 1809 Dawson Turner used seven of Ellen’s illustrations in his own book on seaweeds8, and passed her drawings to others for use in their publications9. Ellen left her extensive collection of plant specimens to Dawson Turner, and her drawings were sent to him as well. About two hundred and forty10 of Ellen’s watercolour drawings of seaweeds are now held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, and forty six are in storage with Museums Sheffield. Any drawings that Ellen made of mosses or lichens have not yet been found. Her specimens are mostly at the Natural History Museum, London, some at Trinity College Dublin, and a few in herbaria around the world.
THROUGH LETTERS AND PLANTS
Ellen and Dawson Turner never met, but through their letters they shared not only their enthusiasm for botany but also told each other about their domestic settings and concerns, recommended books on botany, novels and poetry to read. Dawson Turner passed Ellen’s specimens and drawings to other eminent botanists, and told her of their travels and discoveries. “You will not, however, thank me for going on about poetry; but I am full of it now, being in the middle of Dante which delights me 56
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 excessively. ~ Mr Hooker’s voyage to Iceland will, I am sorry to say, necessarily retard the publication of his Jungermanniae. .... Mr Joseph Woods, a particular friend of Dillwyn’s, threatens you with a call at Ballylickey. I envy him, I own. Ill health obliges him to quit London & travel during the summer, & he has determined to visit the Southern part of your Island.” DT to EH 14 June 1809 Lewis Dillwyn and Joseph Woods visited Ellen at Ballylickey in July 1809 and were very impressed by her. ‘Miss Hutchins amazed me by the extent and depth of her botanical knowledge … almost the best botanist, either Male or Female that we ever met with.’ Lewis Dillwyn, botanist, 1809 ‘Miss Hutchins, though stationed at such a distant outpost of the scientific world is thoroughly and minutely acquainted with the plants of her neighbourhood.’ Joseph Woods, botanist, 1809 The breadth and depth of the correspondence with Dawson Turner continued: “Dante delights me horrible as he is tho’ I only read the english translation” EH to DT Sept 4th 1809 “I am much, very much obliged by your wish to send me the Lady of the Lake11, which I was so fortunate as to get in Dublin when there was hardly a copy left. I have read it with more pleasure than I can describe. .... Having little leisure during the day for reading I sat up the night after the book came & never perceived how the time glided away until daylight appeared. I should also thank you for a specimen of Pinguicula vulgaris to compare with our plant. Mr Drummond the Cork Botanic Gardener was here a day or two ago & he thinks our Pinguicula a distinct species.” EH to DT July 24th 1810 An incredibly strong and supportive friendship developed through the correspondence. Ellen had periods of illness that prevented her doing any botanising, and she alluded to family troubles but doesn’t give any details. From other correspondence we know that over a long period of time there was serious conflict between her two oldest brothers, Emanuel and Arthur, over finance and property. “My time is now so entirely occupied with minute domestic concerns and I may add troubles that I have little leisure and less spirit to attend to anything amusing. I seldom have an hour that I can call my own except early in the mornings and at night after I settle my Mother to sleep when I walk out to enjoy in silence and solitude the delightful softness of the night either by the seashore or by 57
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 the river. Here I recover my spirits or rather become calm after the agitations of the day.” EH to DT July 13th 1812 Ellen found the letters and the friendship a wonderful source of comfort when she was immersed in dealing with her own and her mother’s illness. Dawson Turner and his wife faced great sadness when a child of theirs died. Later, Dawson Turner named one of his daughters after Ellen and asked her to be the child’s godmother. He said that Ellen of all women in the world was the one he would be most pleased for his daughter to emulate. Ellen collected and sent sea shells to his eldest daughter, Maria. Ellen and Turner showed real concern for each other in times of stress and illness, and sought to console and encourage the other.
END AND HER LEGACY
By 1813, Ellen’s health was poor and she and her mother moved to Bandon for better medical care, and her mother died there. Ellen’s health12 deteriorated further and she moved to live with her brother Arthur and his wife Matilda at Ardnagashel near Ballylickey in 1814. When she was bed-bound and under doctor’s orders not to exert herself by letter writing, she disobeyed and sent Turner a letter to reassure him that she was still alive. He was extremely relieved and wrote back immediately. She replied that she read his letters ‘with tears of gratitude and affection for such kindness.’ In this, her last letter to him before her death, she ended with ‘Send me a moss – anything just to look at.’ Ellen’s sister in law, Matilda, wrote to Dawson Turner to tell him of Ellen’s death on 9th February 1815. Turner and many fellow botanists wrote tributes to her botanical achievements in their publications. It is wonderful that her legacy lives on, in a very public way, on her home territory, with the annual Ellen Hutchins Festival in Bantry and the planned exhibition in Trinity College Dublin in 2017. Research continues and it is hoped that more information will be discovered about Ellen’s story.
MADELINE HUTCHINS Ellen’s great great grand niece, researcher on Ellen, and an organiser of the Ellen Hutchins Festival. www.ellenhutchins.com
DT to EH : Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London EH to DT : Wren Library, Trinity College Cambridge Ellen to Sam: Hutchins family private collection Ellen to Emanuel: Hutchins family private collection Ellen to Mackay: the Herbarium, Botany Department, Trinity College Dublin Mackay to Ellen: Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
7 8 9
A typed manuscript (MS 47), ELLEN HUTCHINS a Botanist, in the Representative Church Body (RCB) Library in Dublin, held by them since 1943, had its authorship confirmed as by Alicia Hutchins (1832-1915) and was published online as Archive of the Month in February 2016. William Jackson Hooker was knighted for his services to botany and became Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (and married Turner’s eldest daughter). Mitchell, M.E. (ed.) 1999. Early observations on the flora of southwest Ireland: selected letters of Ellen Hutchins and Dawson Turner, 1807-1814. Occasional Papers, National Botanic Gardens. 12. The specimen used for the first published description of the plant. His wide range of interests including botany and agriculture, in addition he promoted and funded the translation of the bible into Irish, printed an English Irish dictionary, sought to understand volcanoes and meteors, was concerned with the relief of poverty, and revolutionised the teaching of clinical medicine. Ellen is quoting from Walter Scott’s narrative poem, The Lay of the Minstrel, published in 1805 Muscologica Hibernicae Spicilegium 1804 Historia Fuci – Natural History of Fuci 1808-1819 Two appeared in English Botany by James Sowerby and James Edward Smith, and some in The British Confervae by Lewis Dillwyn. A bound volume of 238, and the ‘very first’ of Fucus tomentosus and six others, bound into Turner’s own copy of Historia Fuci above the engravings. The novel by Walter Scott, published that year. From evidence in correspondence, it is thought that Ellen suffered from tuberculosis throughout her life. By 1814, she also had a liver complaint that her doctor was treating with mercury.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
MY GRANDFATHER, DANIEL FITZGERALD R.N. CARRIGTWOHILL, CO. CORK AT THE BATTLE OF JUTLAND BY
Centenary Memorial to The Irish Sailor at Alexandra Dock, Belfast (1916-2016.) It was my privilege to be invited to speak about the experiences of my grandfather, Daniel Fitzgerald R. N., at the centenary commemoration to The Irish Sailor which was held at Belfast’s Alexandra Wharf on Tuesday, 31st May, 2016. The battle of Jutland was the greatest, most cataclysmic and bloodiest naval battle fought in WWI and is considered to be the largest naval battle that ever took place in the Northern hemisphere. The grand fleet of the Royal Navy was led by Admiral Jellicoe, Commander of the Royal Navy. Admiral David Beatty was forewarned of the imminent attack by the German High Seas Fleet, which was intended to surprise, locate and destroy the British Battle cruisers Squadron. The misguided German perception was that most of the British Fleet, located at Scapa Flow, was too far away to become involved in the planned attack. However, unbeknownst to the German naval command, the Battle cruisers Fleet had already set sail from Rosyth, the Dreadnoughts had left Scapa Flow and Cromarty and moved and converged into a head-on battle against the German Imperial Navy High Seas fleet, under Commander Admiral Reinhardt von Scheer and Admiral Von Hipper. The naval engagement lasted 36 hours and was a fierce battle of dreadnoughts and battle Daniel Fitzgerald wearing WWI cruisers, meeting head on, off the coast of medals Denmark at Jutland, called Skaggerak by the Germans, on 31st May, 1916. A total of 250 warships and 100,000 sailors, both German and British, were involved at the Battle of Jutland. 14 British ships and 11 German ships were lost. Total loss of life included 6,094 British Royal Navy and 60
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 2,551 German sailors. This number of fatalities was the greatest loss of lives, in one day, ever experienced at a sea battle. Ireland lost 350 sailors to the deep in the battle. Both sides claimed victory. The Germans claimed to have caused a bigger number of casualties; however, the British continued to rule the sea thereafter and were not challenged again in the Great War by the German navy. This naval encounter in effect appears to have changed the course of the war as the German fleet was blockaded and confined to port. Consequently, the importation of essential raw materials and food, by Germany, became impossible.
On the home front, the fallout from this navel battle was profound and far-reaching: part of a generation of young men were dead at Jutland, two thirds of whom were from the south of Ireland. Cork City and county, particularly the coastline regions, lost 123 souls, the greatest number of deceased, at this sea battle. So mothers, fathers, wives, children, friends were left bereft and lost at the catastrophic deaths of their loved ones. The Irish War of Independence, and the consequent turmoil that existed at home, was concurrently happening in the south of Ireland.
MY IRISH VOICE
I was selected, as a representative and voice from the south of Ireland, to speak about my grandfather Daniel, as his descendant and his only grandchild, and to describe the battle and its effects on his life and family, together with its impact on them post war. I became, for many people, present that day, and on the international media broadcasts that followed, a voice telling the personal story publicly of one man’s experiences at The Battle of Jutland. This story resonated for many Marie McCarthy addressing the assembly others of how it was for many Irish sailors who fought in that battle. Many of those involved were just boys and under age and, in many instances, were as young as 15 years, doomed to die in the North Sea, in a watery grave.
AND FORMAT AT
31ST MAY 2016
The Alexandra Wharf, Belfast, was an extraordinary setting for a 61
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 commemoration event. There were five readers chosen, each was requested to speak on family reflections of the Irish Sailor in WWI naval battles. Representatives from the Irish, British and Northern Ireland Naval Services also took part in the ceremony. More importantly, 200 descendants of naval seamen and sailors from the four corners of Ireland, Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA, were present that day to honour their loved ones. The VIPs from the Republic of Ireland included the Irish Navy represented by Hugh Tully, Commodore, Flag Officer Commanding Naval Services; Lt. Commander Eoin Smyth- Captain of the Irish Naval vessel Le Ciara, and two officers also from Le Ciara, Lt. Diarmuid O’Donovan, and Lt. Jack McLoughlin. Representing the Department of Defence was Minister of State, Paul Kehoe, accompanied by Margaret Stanley, Principal Officer, Department of Defence. Also invited, and present on the day, was German Naval Rear Admiral Karl-Wilhelm Ohlms. His presence, as he sat with the British and Irish Naval Forces, was testimony to the reconciliation, friendship and cooperation that now exists between former foes.
H.M.S. CAROLINE REOPENED H.R.H. Prince Michael of Kent opened the H.M.S.. Caroline as a warship museum on this prestigious occasion. Now sensitively restored and revamped to her former formal 1916 condition, H.M.S. Caroline is the unique, only surviving warship of WWI. She has remained docked in Belfast since 1923. Seeing her in her new coat of warship-grey paint, in calm waters in Alexandra HMS Caroline Wharf, bathed in sunlight on May 31st, 2016, she was a towering background reminder of what was being remembered. We were entertained by the Royal Marine Band from Scotland. A moving spiritual service was rendered by Chaplain Rev. Richard Rowe, Royal Navy Chaplain. Two wreaths were thrown from the H.M.S. Caroline onto the water of the wharf, an Irish Tricolour and one decorated with Poppies. A two minute silence initiated this action as ‘Still’ on Bosun’s call was announced. A closing prayer was said for The Irish Sailor, and all those serving on our seas, to close the ceremony.
OTHER SEA BATTLES
I believe it is necessary to mention that this inclusive event in Belfast 62
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 also commemorated all sea battles during WWI. These battles are rarely remembered. The Battle of Heligoland Bight engagement on 28th August, 1914, resulted in over 700 German lives being lost including 35 British fatalities. The Battle of Coronel on 1st November, 1914, resulted in 1,500 British men dying and two armoured cruisers being destroyed. The Battle of the Falklands followed on 8th December, 1914, and more than 1,800 German souls were committed to the deep with 10 Royal Navy sailors lost. January 24th, 1915, witnessed the Battle of Dogger Bank with the German navy sustaining losses of 954 and British losses amounting to 15. Finally, the Zeebrugge Raid resulted in over 220 lives both British and German. So considering that the Battle of Jutland involved 250 ships and 100,000 sailors with 6,094 British and 2,551 German sailors lost to the deep, we can see immediately from these figures the magnitude of the fatalities in sea battles during the Great War. A figure of 358 deaths was later confirmed as being from the Island of Ireland. It is estimated that 20,000 Irish sailors were involved in the war effort at sea during WWI, serving in the Royal Navy, Merchant Navy, Hospital ships, Home Navy, ordinary fishing vessels and rescue services at sea. We were reminded by one descendant speaker at Alexandra Wharf, Belfast, of the 500 souls, sailors, soldiers, nurses and civilians lost on the H.M.S. Leinster, the mail boat between Dūn Laoighre and Holyhead which was torpedoed. This tragic incident happened as the war was nearing closure.
It was not easy living on a WWI warship. Accommodation and facilities were basic and restrictive. I observed this, at first hand, when I visited and toured the restored H.M.S. Caroline, as a guest. War ships, though enormous in size, were built primarily to carry operational defence armoury, boilers, turbines, coal, oil, engine rooms, navigational equipment, necessary stores and were not designed with designated personal comfort zones for the crew. Officers had very small, private cabins, shared bathroom facilities, and their own mess and galley. The Captain only had a luxurious suite and a private dining cabin, personal galley and cooks. An evident social divide existed in the level of accommodation and food provided to officers and the ordinary sailor or rating. Food was basic and nourishing for the crew and served in messes. Royal Marines were on board to act in a policing role and to keep law and order. Removable hammocks slung on hooks, in an open space like a mess area, were used as beds. Imagine 40 hammocks hanging in an average bedroom. When not in use, these were wrapped with bedding 63
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 and put in a storage box designed for that purpose. That mess was an all purpose space, with minimal basic furnishings. Each crew member had a small box/locker for personal items. Letters were censored for security. Communal wash rooms and toilets were used by the crew. When off duty for a few hours, sailors usually lay on deck to catch up on lost sleep or to sew and mend their clothes. Football teams did exist and games were played at peaceful times, sometimes between neighbouring ships or between officers and crew. Pets were commonly kept on board usually cats or rabbits. Entertainment was provided by means of staff concerts. Visiting parties went to other neighbouring ships, when such was possible.
DANIEL FITZGERALD. R.N.
I proudly spoke that day about my grandfather Daniel Fitzgerald, Stoker at the Battle of Jutland, and I experienced many mixed emotions standing on the lectern, with H.M.S. Caroline as my backdrop. Daniel was born on 17th Dec, 1872, the second child of four siblings. His parents Daniel Fitzgerald and Mary Spillane, lived with their family at Ballyadam, Carrigtwohill, Co. Cork, Ireland. Daniel was educated locally. Pre WWI, he worked on the Barry 999 acres estate as a gardener, as did his father. He married a local girl Mary Burke on 17th October, 1910. He joined the British Royal Navy, enrolling at Queenstown, Co. Cork . His decision to join was a choice he had to make, probably due to lack of employment in his locality. His naval record shows that he was initially trained at Devonport. He was described as being of stocky build, 5ft 8in in height, dark hair and a ruddy complexion. The H.M.S. Tiger, a 704 ft long battle cruiser, became his posting for the duration of the Great War and he was on board as a stoker for the Battle of Jutland. My grandfather experienced and witnessed the horror and suffering of the Battle of Jutland while shovelling tons of coal in the bowels of this ship. I suppose one could conclude that he possibly survived because he was buried deep in the ocean in a coal dust laden atmosphere within the confines of the stoker’s area, tolerating temperatures of 150°F. H.M.S. Tiger carried over 3,000 tons of coal at maximum loading. There was poor ventilation and it was exhausting, backbreaking work. I wonder what it was like for him to think of his wife and his very young family of two sons, Daniel, 2 years, and Thomas, an infant at home. Would he survive to see them again, as the ship was under attack and being pitched around in the roaring seas? Tiger took several hits, some records suggest as many as 18, as the battle cruisers continued to converge on each other. My father told me in later years that his father did not speak of his experiences very often but would frequently stand in his doorway at his 64
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 home and stare into the distance. He recalled hearing horrific sounds at the sinking of the Queen Mary, as it was torpedoed and sank with the entire crew of over 1,200 on board, lost to the deep. My father suspected that he was experiencing great turmoil, sadness and tragic haunting memories. From recent research conducted in Cork it is evident that Cork City and county lost 123 sailors at the Battle of Jutland. My grandfather would have known many of those people and their families, some of whom had lived in Queenstown, Youghal and Cork city. On June 1st, 1916, at 5.30pm the Tiger came out of its zig-zag formation to facilitate the burials at sea of those 28 unfortunate crew members who perished in the battle. Daniel witnessed this and relived it psychologically for the rest of his life. He never slept well again. Another factor of concern to Daniel was that while he was at sea, Mary his wife struggled to rear two babies on her own. She also managed a successful poultry business. A third son was born post war called Patrick. Daniel came home from the war to his native village and continued his quiet lifestyle, though a changed man. He is described today by those who remember him as a quiet, gentle man who liked to play with his children. He is also described as having excellent barbering skills and regularly was called upon by his neighbours to use his skills on their hair. He died a widower, on 15th October, 1952, aged almost 82 years and is at rest at St Mary’s cemetery, Carrigtwohill. The thought that lingers with me is that my grandfather gave his all in that war. He returned home to be greeted by political turmoil in Ireland. His second son Thomas, born in 1914, was nicknamed “Limey” by some local people. Thomas died at 37 years of age from alcohol poisoning exactly a year before his father. I do not remember my grandfather as I was too young to recall him but I cherish the fact that he returned from the war alive and that he knew me for a brief time. I honour him here today, and give voice to his story as a war hero, as his only grandchild as does my son Cathal, his only great grandson, who is present today, in presenting this tribute to him. His grave has the following inscription, which translates as “In God’s corn store may we all meet again” and as Gaeilge it reads as: “In Iothlainn Dé go gcastar sinn.”
CONCLUSION It was an amazingly emotive experience and an honour to deliver this address and I was aware of my grandfather’s spirit being very present 65
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 to me as I stood there and spoke about him. It was important for me to remember him and to break the culture of silence that has persisted in our country for the past 100 years. I admire his courage, integrity and strength of character to do what he considered correct for him to do, in the context of that time. Incidentally my other grandfather William Sylvester, originally from Manhattan, New York, was involved in the Irish War of Independence, attached to Cork County 4th Battalion. Sin sceál eile! I will finish with a verse of the very poignant hymn, which was sung at the Alexandra Wharf, by the navy presence on that memorable day. “Eternal Father Strong to Save (The Naval Hymn) Eternal Father, strong to save, Whose arm hath bound the restless wave, Who bidd’st the mighty ocean deep Its own appointed limits keep; Oh, hear us when we cry to Thee, For those in peril on the sea! Verse 1 (William Whiting. 1860)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge and thank Ms. Karen O’ Rawe. Naval Historian, Chair: Ulster Hub Ulster: Director, Belfast Somme 100 and Editor: Belfast WWI; and Commander John A. Gray. Royal Navy, Senior Naval Officer Northern Ireland for their professionalism and courtesy to me.
BIBLIOGRAPHY History Hub Ulster. Commemoration to the Irish Sailor, Dedicated to those from the island of Ireland who served at sea during the First World War., 31st May, 2016. Gordon, A. (2015) The Rules of the Game, Jutland and British Naval Command. Penguin Books Ltd., London. Hayward, V. (1977) H.M.S. Tiger At Bay: A Sailor’s Memoir 1914-1918. William Kimber & Co. Ltd., London. Hough, R. (1999) The Great War at Sea, 1914-1918. Sutton Publishing Ltd., Stroud U.K. Log Book of H.M. S. Tiger, World War 1, National Archive, Kew London. Cat. Ref. ADM 53/63091 and 53/63094 (accessed 31st May, 2012). Naval Record of Daniel Fitzgerald no. 285346, The National Archive, Kew, London. Catalogue Ref.ADM/ 188/457 (accessed 31st May, 2012) Osborne, R. (2016) Voices from the Past: The Battle of Jutland. Frontline Books, imprint of Pen and Sword Books Ltd. Yorkshire. The National Museum of the Royal Navy (2016) H.M.S. Caroline, Pitkin Publishing, UK. Young, F. With The Battle Cruisers. Lightning Source Ltd, Milton Keynes, UK. 278154UK00011B/488/P ( Scanned historical book by General Books LLtm, Memphis, USA,2012 ISBN9781151262721)
BIBLIOGRAPHY (including illustrations) History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, by William H. Egle, E. M. Gardner, Philadelphia, 1883 Cassel’s History of England, Century Edition, Vol. III & IV, Cassel & Co, London, c.1900 Harmsworth’s New Atlas, c.1920 History of the World, Vol.6 & 7, Hammerton, London, c.1930 William Penn, a Biography, by Catherine Owens Peare, J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1956 Vanishing Country Houses of Ireland, by the Knight of Glin, David J. Griffin and Nicholas K. Robinson, Irish Architectural Archives and Irish Georgian Society, Dublin, 1988 The Chronicles of London, by Andrew Saint and Gillian Darley, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1994 The Penn Family, by Barry O’Brien, Walsh Printers, Clonakilty, Ireland, 2001 Liberty, Conscience and Toleration, by Andrew R. Murphy, Oxford, 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IN IRELAND Local artist Phil Davis of Shanagarry, for permission to use his rendition of Penn Castle (page 3). The Daly family of Castle Salem (Roscarbery, County Cork), for access to the site and a guided tour of the castle; now also providing self-catering accommodation in a converted barn. (www.castlesalem.ie). Tina Pisco, for introducing me to Castle Salem; Lou & Ethel Kinsella for facilitating the access there. The staff of Macroom Library. The Irish Architectural Archives. The Kilkenny Shop of Shanagarry, for allowing me access to the ruined Castle of the Penn Family. The Cork Non-Fiction Writers Group (Central Library), for copy-editing these history strips; among them, Nuala Murphy, for the final proof-reading. Suzanne Forbes (visiting U.C.C.; from Open University, Milton Keynes, U.K.) and Edward Murphy (visiting U.C.C.; from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ), for ne Forbes, Open University, Milton Keynes,wick, NJ, for last minute information highlighting last minute ‘essentials’ about William Penn. The Federation of Local History Societies, for including this article in their annual Journal.
The Wadsworth Library in Geneseo (NY), a regular venue for me, year after year; also David Guillot for his help there. The Library Company of Philadelphia (PA), for permission to take pictures of all their displays and to include them in my publications. The staff of the Mercer County Library System (NJ), for their friendly and effective guidance, especially Alla Gimpilevich; also Natasha Guillot for her patient assistance. The staff at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (PA), especially Sara A. Borden, for permission to reproduce excerpts from their invaluable manuscripts and other archives. The staff at Pennsbury Manor, Morrisville (PA), who gave me permission to use my photographs from their permanent exhibition in the museum; especially Todd Galle, curator, and Mary Ellen Kunz, museum educator, for their first-class support. Photos of the historic buildings of Pennsbury Manor: courtesy of Pascal Guillot.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
SRÁID UÍ MÓRDHA “Cad a dhéanamid feasta gan Sráid Uí Mhórdha? Tá deireadh na tithe ar lár, Níl trácht ar an áit ná a theaglach, Is ní chluinnigh a ceol go brea” (Ón dán Cill Cais) Ce’n fath go bhfuilimid ann beagnach 2 bhlian ? Ce’n fath Ce’n Fath ? Cultúr na h-áite. Tá an aonach ann suas go 300 céad bhlian, na tithe 100-150 blian. Sa bhlian 1916 bhí Pádraigh Mac Piarais agus na hóglaigh in Árd Oifíg an Phoist. Bhíodar ag tróid i gcoinne Airm Sasana. Bhí mo shean Uncail Aonrí ag tróid san Ostán Metropole. Chuaigh an ostán tri thine agus d’imigh mUncail isteach in Ard Oifig an Phoist. Chuaigh an Árd Oifíg trí lasracha agus bhí orthu éalú amach. Chuadar sios Plás Aonrí agus isteach leo in uimhir 10. Breis is trí chéad fir, a bhí ann. Bhí an cruinniú deireadh ag an Seachtar i dteach uimhir 16. Do shocradh siad géilleadh don namhaidh, chun deireadh a chur leis an sleacht ar na daoine agus na hóghlaigh. Rinne na fir poill sna bhallaí agus tríd leo go dtí an teach deireadh. Amach leo. Ach taobh amuigh, ar barr na sráide, bhí airm Sasana ag fanacht. Cheana féin do dhearna An Uí Raghaillaigh ionsaí síos an sráid le scór óglaigh ach fuair an chuid bás. Ghortaigh go dona an Uí Raghailaigh agus fuair sé bás ina aonair ansin. Na daoine nár fuair bás chuireadar faoi gafa iad. D’fhágadar ann sa Rotunda i rith na hóiche iad agus mo Shean Uncail Aonraí leo. An bhfuil na tithe sin tabhachtach? Tá siad i gcúltúr agus stair na hÉireann. Deireann an tAire Stáit “nach suíomh cogaidh é”. Cad é muna bfhúil? Bhí daoine ag troid agus fuair daoine bás. Sna blianta anuas bhí daoine ag rá gur ceart agus is cóir an ait a choinneál ach níor aontaigh siad leo. Le dhá bhlian anuas táimid, Mel, Diarmuid, mise, Bart, Emily, Mary, Cillian agus an chuid daoine eile ann gach Satharn, ag bailíú ainmneacha chun an áit a shabháil. Ceapann daoine nach bhfuil an áit stairiúl. Bhfearr leo ionad siopadóireachta a thógháil ó Sráid Uí Chonaill go dtí an ILAC agus ostán a thógáil san áit a fuair An Uí Rhaghaillaigh bás. Níl aon meas ag daoine ar an áit. Tá an tairgead ag caint in ionad an stair. Sin an fáth. Ba mhaith liom mo bhuíochas a ghabháil do Mel Mac Giobhúin as ucht an cabhair a thug sé dom Bróna Uí Loing
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
MOORE ST What will we do without Moore St , The end of the houses are here No mention of the household, And we won’t ever hear it’s music. Why are we there 2 years, why? Why? Culture of the area, the market is 300 -400 years old the house 100-150 In 1916 Padraigh Pearse was with his men in the GPO fighting against the British army. My Grand Uncle Harry Boland was fighting in the Metropole Hotel. The Hotel went on fire and my Grand Uncle went into the GPO. The GPO then went on fire and they had to escape. They ran down Henry Place and more than 300 men went in to number 10. The Seven met there for the last time. They decided to surrender to put an end to the slaughter of the people and the deaths of the soldiers. They made holes in the walls and out through the houses to the last one and out they went. Outside at the top of the street, the English army were waiting. In spite of this, the O’Raghaillaigh led a charge but many died. He himself was mortally wounded and died alone there. The rest were placed under arrest and left all night in the Rotunda, my Grand Uncle Harry with them. Are these houses important? Yes in our history and culture. The Minister says it is not a battle site, well what is it then? People were fighting and people died. For the last few years people have been saying that it is only to preserve these buildings, but no one agreed with them. For the last 2 years I, Diarmuid, Mel, Mary, Bart, Emily, Cillian and many others, have been there every Saturday, collecting signatures to save Moore St. People think it is not historical. They would prefer to build a huge shopping centre from O’Connell St to the ILAC centre and a hotel on the site where the ORaghaillaigh died. They has no respect for the site, money is talking not History That is why we are there. I would like to thank Mel MacGiobhúin for all his help in writing this Bróna Uí Loing 76
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
THE KILDARE MEN WHO MARCHED TO THE GPO (AND
THE STORY OF IRELAND’S LAST BY
Most people are aware of the confusion caused in 1916 by the cancellation order issued by Eoin Mc Neill, which meant that – with a few exceptions – most mobilisation on Easter Monday 1916 took place mainly in Dublin. While some of the Volunteers who turned out on that historic morning were, of course, natives of other counties, only one other Volunteer group from outside the capital actually turned up to the GPO and took part in the fierce fighting that followed during that epic week. As in other parts of the country, there was confusion in Kildare on Easter Sunday about whether the Rising was actually going ahead. The Kildare volunteers were led by Donal Ua Buachalla, an Irish language activist from Maynooth, who ran a grocery and bicycles shop in the town. Ua Buachalla had been arrested in 1907 and had his groceries seized for refusing to pay a fine for having his name painted in Irish on the side of his van. This was against the law at that time. On Easter Sunday he had mobilised, with the men, to march to Dublin but had then received the countermanding order and had stood down. On the following day, having learned from a bread van driver that fighting was taking place in Dublin, he decided, on his own initiative, to cycle into Dublin to see what was happening. On learning that the Rising was actually going ahead, he cycled back to Maynooth and having managed to assemble fourteen other men, immediately set out to march back to the capital. The group marched out of Maynooth College by the back gate leading to the bank of the Royal Canal. They proceeded to march along the bank of the canal to Pike Bridge, about a mile on the Dublin side of the town. They then took to the railway line and marched as far as Blakestown, just outside Leixlip. This was the originally agreed rendezvous point for meeting up with the Dunboyne Volunteers for the march on Dublin. After waiting some time, and with no sign of the Meath contingent showing up, the Maynooth men marched on to Ashtown along the railway line. According to later written testimony an attempt was made to contact the Volunteers in Celbridge but they did not turn out. 77
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The Maynooth contingent marched on, sending two men ahead as scouts to carry out reconnaissance at each railway bridge. As darkness began to fall, the group had reached the town of Lucan. By the time they got to Clonsilla, a heavy drizzle of rain started to fall. The group marched on to Blanchardstown, where they left the road and took to the canal banks again. Here they halted briefly, for a ten minute rest (and smoke break!) and then proceeded along the canal, cutting across the fields into Finglas Golf course. By dawn, they had reached the banks of the river Tolka at a narrow point running alongside Glasnevin Cemetery. The men waded, waist high, across the river and then, having posted guards, camped overnight in the graveyard. Early the next morning they resumed their march towards the city, first encountering two armed Volunteers on picket duty at Cross Guns Bridge. They then proceeded, in formation, down Berkeley Road into Blessington Street where, according to accounts, some of the residents urged them to go home, whilst others cheered them on. When they reached the Parnell Monument, they were greeted by a fusillade of fire. Reaching the GPO, they were greeted by James Connolly, who reputedly, told them that it didn’t matter if they were wiped out, as they had justified themselves by turning up. This was probably small comfort to the weary marchers! Rather more welcome were the mugs of tea and buns which they were then offered. One participant later recalled that they were addressed by Pearse himself who said how glad he was to have them there with them in the fight and that their action, in marching from Kildare, even if they did no more, would gain them a place in history. He then outlined the overall position of the various rebel outposts and offered the Kildare men the priviledge of choosing what posting they wanted to take up. They decided to help the hard-pressed rebels in City Hall ,where they took part in the fierce fighting which was raging there. When that building was evacuated, the Kildare men found themselves in a group fighting a rearguard action from the Exchange Hotel on Parliament Street. This position could not be held either, and the group eventually they fell back to the GPO, after a retreat up Temple Lane. After the break out from the GPO, and subsequent surrender, some of the Kildare contingent managed to escape the cordon being thrown around the city by the British Army, and to get back to Kildare. However they were quickly arrested there by the RIC and ended up in Hare Park prison on the Curragh. Some of that doughty Kildare contingent went on to have interesting later careers in Irish politics, with both Ua Buachalla and Tom Harris being involved on the anti-Treaty side in the Civil War and becoming Fianna Fail TD s in the 1930s. 78
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Ua Buachalla, in particular, was to earn another place in history as Ireland’s very last Governor General. He was appointed to that office by Taoiseach Eamon de Valera in November 1932, on the resignation of the previous incumbent, James Mc Neill. De Valera instructed Ua Buachalla to keep a low profile in the post and not to fulfil any public engagements. This was part of his policy to make the post of governor general increasingly irrelevant. Ua Buachalla was also instructed not to take up residence in the offical residence, the Viceregal Lodge (now Aras an Uachatran); instead, a local house was rented for him to live in. During his tenure, Ua Buachalla only fulfilled the basic duties of the post, such as formally summoning and dissolving the Dail and conveying the ‘Royal Assent’ to legislation. He also only drew £2000 of the £10,000 salary attaching to the post. After four years, de Valera, taking advantage of the ‘Abdication Crisis’ involving King Edward VIII in Britain, finally abolished the governor general post, in December 1936. When, later, de Valera was elected President of Ireland in 1959, he appointed Ua Buachalla to his first Council of State. Ua Buachalla died, aged 97, on 30th October 1963. The Ua Buachalla hardware shop, in Maynooth, finally closed in 2005. The road beside the shop is now named after him – although, ironically, it is rendered in English as “Buckley’s Lane”! The original building has, unfortunately, been demolished but some frontage has been preserved, with the building bearing the name “Buckley House”.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
O’NEILL COUNTRY BY
Forging links between North and South is always to be welcomed and in that regard, great credit is due to Kinsale Historical Society and The O’Neill Country Historical Society, aided and abetted by Clane Local History Group, who teamed up for a most stimulating and enjoyable visit to places of interest in counties Armagh, Tyrone and Kildare in June 2016. Most of the group departed from Kinsale early on Friday, June 10th, and after a short stop at Horse and Jockey, Co. Tipperary, met up with Larry and Anne Breen and Jim and Una Heffernan from Clane over lunch at Monaghan’s Harbour View Hotel, Naas.
NAAS As we drove through what is a thriving town centre, Larry told us that the Irish language name for Naas, Nás na Ríogh, translates as Meeting Place of the Kings. It dates back over 1,500 years to the pre-Norman Irish kings, the last of whom died in 904, and it was visited by St. Patrick in 448. After the Norman invasion in 1169-1170, Strongbow gave land to the Fitzgeralds and Fitzmaurices. Wales’ patron saint is prominent in Naas because many of the earlier Norman settlers in Kildare were Cambro-Normans from across the Irish Sea. St. David’s Church of Ireland was built on the site of an earlier Irish Celtic church dedicated to the local St. Corban. The castle (c1200) was twice visited by King John. In the former Parliament of Ireland established in 1297 and abolished in 1800, the Naas constituency had two seats. Indeed, some meetings of the parliament were held there. In the Middle Ages, it became a walled market town and was occasionally raided by the O’Byrne and O’Toole clans from Wicklow. One of the first battles of the 1798 Rebellion took place in Naas when a force of about 1,000 rebels was defeated in an unsuccessful attack on the town and its jail (later the town hall) built in 1796. A leader of the United Irishmen, Theobold Wolfe Tone, is buried just outside Naas at Bodenstown which the group visited on the journey back to Cork. Speaking of nationalism, there is a recently erected a statue of the patriot John Devoy in the town and the former army barracks was named after the Fenian leader who was born near Naas. Larry also referred to other landmarks of note in and around the Grand Canal town including the courthouse (1807) — which often features in 80
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 films — the old barracks (1866); the Presbyterian church; the Church of Our Lady and St. David, RC (1827), the former Lawlor’s ballroom and the ill fated Jigginstown House.
ARMAGH The group travelled north crossing the River Boyne over the impressive new bridge near Drogheda and was warmly welcomed on arrival in Armagh city by Art O Dálaigh and Seamus Casey of The O’Neill Country Historical Society. St. Patrick’s Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland. It was built in various phases in the Gothic style between 1840 and 1904 to serve as the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Armagh , the original Medieval Cathedral of St. Patrick having been transferred to the Protestant Church of Ireland at the time of the Irish Reformation. It stands on a hill opposite its Anglican counterpart.
The sheer scale of the cathedral can only be fully appreciated when up close, especially the height of its imposing frontage which is often filmed on television. Very attractive inside, are the mosaics, including a special section alongside the main altar about St. Brigid, the marble and stained glass. There was also time for a brief visit to the nearby Cardinal Tomas O Fiach Library and Archive in memory of the former Archbishop of 81
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Armagh and scholar. This is a free reference facility holding important collections relating to Irish history, language, ecclesiastical history, the Irish abroad and Irish sport.
Not very far from Armagh we entered ‘O’Neill Country’ where Art O Dálaigh showed us key locations from the Battle of Yellow Ford in 1598. It was here on the River Callan close to the River Blackwater that the combined strength of the Ulster chieftains, Maguire of Fermanagh, McMahon of Monaghan, O’Neill of Tyrone and O’Donnell of Donegal, defeated a much larger English army of around 4,000 men commanded by Sir Henry Bagenal, brother-in-law and a bitter enemy of Hugh O’Neill. Driving through lovely rolling countryside, Art described how the battle was fought over an extensive area of what had been mainly forest and how the Ulster Gaels were ready for and outmanoeuvred Bagenal’s men who had to make their way with heavy weapons through boggy land with traps to try and relieve a besieged English fort on the Blackwater under Lord Thomas Burgh. When the leading English regiment came to trenches covered with sticks and grass dug by the Irish, they quickly found that they had walked into a killing ground. Confusion reigned and the Irish sent forward cavalry and swordsmen who rampaged the English. O’Neill’s gallowglass of Scottish mercenaries also fought in the battle while other Irish forces moved to surround the enemy from behind. The English lost more than half of their number, including Bagenal, who was shot in the face by a musket ball. Those who survived under the command of Wingfield fled to the cathedral at Armagh (now the site of the Protestant cathedral) which served as a fortress and others to Newry. Many of the Irish who had served in Bagenal’s force now came over to the Ulster Gaels. A new hope was born that drew many of the southern clans to the Irish side. It was to inspire O’Neill and O’Donnell and others, who in 1601 marched south in an ill-fated effort to link up with the Spanish at Kinsale for a battle that effectively ended Gaelic civilisation in Ireland. In a bitter irony, Wingfield led the charge at Kinsale that defeated O’Neill for which he was ‘granted’ six square miles of Wicklow and made Viscount Powerscourt.
BENBURB PRIORY Our next stop on day one was north west to the Servite Priory at Benburb, just over the Blackwater River in Co. Tyrone, a very impressive building in picturesque grounds which includes the bawn of a former O’Neill castle. The house includes a library, museum of art and sculpture, and 82
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 a chapel of peace and reconciliation, owned by Friar Servants of Mary or Servites founded in Florence in 1223, who are dedicated to service, prayer, listening and healing. The original manor house, made mainly of red Belfast brick and Scottish sandstone and completed in 1890, was originally owned by Presbyterian Belfast distiller James Bruce. The grounds also feature the ruin of a castle bawn, an interesting clock tower and a statue of St. Joseph by Cork sculptor Seamus Murphy. Servites from Chicago acquired the building in 1948. Art has co-written a book about Benburb and said it was also in this locality that Owen Roe O’Neill rested his troops before the Battle of Benburb in 1646 in which the Confederate Irish defeated a Scottish Covenantor and Anglo Irish army under Robert Munro.
On our second day, Art and Seamus took us to the Hill of the O’Neill and the ruins of Ranfurly House at a prominent location overlooking the town of Dungannon, Co. Tyrone and its controversially redeveloped new square. The new visitor attraction is on top of what was formerly known as Castle Hill in which one can learn about the history of the O’Neill’s, the Flight of the Earls and the Plantation of Ulster through an interactive exhibition in Ranfurly House Arts and Visitor Centre. Unfortunately, the premises was closed on the morning we called but one could appreciate the vantage point the O’Neill’s once had.
TULLYHOGUE A highlight for many on the field trip to the North was the visit to Tullyhogue, near Cookstown, an ancient Irish double ring fort and in the later medieval period, the inauguration site of the O’Neills up to
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 1593. Great credit is again due to the local authorities, with the support of EU and UK Government Lottery funding for enhancing both the Hill of the O’Neill and Tullyhogue sites for the benefit of those interested in all traditions of Ulster history. On the morning we called, tarmac was being laid near the entrance, the ring fort was well maintained and extensive landscaping was evident in the parkland leading from the road, all of which will generate bigger visitor numbers to the area as well as raising awareness of its rich heritage. Tullyhogue (hill of youth) has special meaning for Kinsale Historical Society. A sod from the 1601 Battle of Kinsale site was planted there a few years ago by a group from the society and of course the memorial seat at the battlefield at Millwater features a stone from Ulster as well as a sod from Tullyhogue. The original O’Neill chair was deliberately smashed on the orders of English leader Mountjoy after the Battle of Kinsale and Gerry McCarthy pointed out that in pre-Christian times, the stone at the site was used by druids for ceremonies. In the days of St. Patrick, it became a Mass rock and after that was the throne of authority for the O’Neill’s and replicated centuries later in Kinsale. Being the hill of youth, the site was also used for training young people for war.
ULSTER AMERICAN FOLK PARK The main event on the second day was an afternoon at the Ulster American Folk Park outside Omagh where retired schoolteacher and guide John Bradley showed us round.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 It’s an outdoor museum which tells the story of emigration from Ulster to America in the 18th and 19th centuries based mainly on a local family, the Mellons, and others. Visitors follow the emigrant trail featuring thatched houses, a farm, meeting house, forge, school and Mass house, and an Irish street to early log cabins, homesteads and stores in the New World of America and in between go on board a replica emigrant sailing ship. There are costumed characters along the way who very effectively demonstrate local crafts and traditions and tell stories. Most of the buildings were moved stone by stone to the folk park from different parts of Ulster and beyond. This is a must-see attraction if ever visiting Northern Ireland and it also boasts an excellent café, shop and interpretative centre featuring a section on the ill fated liner Titanic.
MOY On Sunday morning, a welcome was extended to the Kinsale group by celebrant Fr. John Hughes at Mass in the Church of St. John the Baptist, Moy, in the parish of Clonfeakle. Afterwards, Art gave a brief but very interesting description of the picturesque village of Moy to where, in his youth, he helped bring cattle for his father over a distance of around four miles for the fair held on the first Friday of each month. Known to many as ‘The Moy’, the village boasts a lovely square. It was founded as a plantation settlement in 1764 by Lord Charlemont, the ornate gates of whose former castle residence, can still be seen. Moy is connected with the village of Charlemont by a bridge that was built over the River Blackwater that also serves as crossing point border between Armagh and Tyrone. In former times, Moy was for many years the site of one of Ireland’s most famous horse fairs and it supplied many of the horses used by Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo and later for the Crimean and First World War. Its churches and shopfronts are very distinctive. We bade farewell to our very knowledgeable and friendly northern friends at Moy before heading south and on behalf of everyone, Larry Breen paid tribute to Art and Seamus for giving of their time, remarking that local history always tended to attract nice people. Following a pleasant lunch stop at Trim Castle Hotel, Co. Meath, we journeyed further south into Co. Kildare. Jim Heffernan of Clane Local History Group pointed to some of the landmarks in the locality dating back to an abbey founded in the 6th century including Clongowes Wood College, Ireland’s oldest catholic school which was founded by the Jesuits in 1814; the ruins of a 13th century Franciscan friary; the 85
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 site of the first battle of 1798 Rebellion involving the Cork Militia and Blackhall Stud with its link to the Profumo Scandal, Our final heritage stop was to the memorial and grave of Wolfe Tone at Bodenstown where there was an interesting talk about the patriot’s family by Larry Breen who is also PRO of the Federation of Local History Societies and editor of its excellent journal.
Wolfe Tone’s grave, Bodenstown, Co. Kildare
Thanks were expressed to the O’Neill and Clane Local history group hosts and guides by chairperson of Kinsale Local History Society, Terry Connolly, who also paid tribute to the staff of the Cohannon Inn, to Gerry McCarthy and other organisers, driver Gerry Rice, and all participants for a most enjoyable and stimulating field trip weekend. Excellent accommodation and fare was provided over the weekend by the staff of the newly refurbished Cohannon Inn and Autolodge near Dungannon. The party from Kinsale comprised Gerry McCarthy, Maura Ahern, Terry and Theresa Connolly, Vincent and Imelda McCarthy, Padraig and Fenella Begley, Hannah Minihane, Liam Cotter, Jeremiah O’Neill, Rilla Brogan, P.J. O’Callaghan, Pauline O’Brien, Theresa Gray and Leo McMahon.
Canon Sean O’Doherty, Randel Hodkinson, President of the Thomond Archaeological Society; Gerald Mitchell, Deputy Mayour of Limerick; Mary Kenehan, Secretary, Thomond Archaeological Society; Richard Ryan. Chairman, FHLS.
Group during Liam Irwin’s guided tour of Georgian Limerick.
Group during Jephson Park, Royal Leamington Spa, walk with Ian Jelf.
At Coventry’s old and new Cathedrals.
Group at Warwick Castle.
At Blenheim Palace.
At Christ Church, Oxford.
North/South group at the grave of Michael Collins, Glasnevin Cemetery.
At The Island of Ireland Peace Park, Messines.
Group at Tehipval Memorial with our excellent and knowledgeable guide Julia Massen.
2016 AGM in the Absolute Hotel, Limerick. Larry Breen, Canon Sean O’Doherty, Mairead Byrne, Betty Quinn, Richard Ryan, Gerald Mitchell, Deputy Mayor, Limerick, Randel Hodkinson, President, Thomond Archaeological Society.
Georgian elegance, Limerick.
Group at the European Parliament with Vice President of the Parliament, Mairead McGuinness, MEP.
Anne Hathaway’s Cottage, Stratford-upon-Avon.
Shakespeare’s birthplace, Stratford-upon-Avon.
The last resting place of the great playright, William Shakespeare.
The Red Drawing Room, Shugborough Hall, Staffordshire.
Detail of the magnificent sculptures of the Town Hall, Leuven.
After the official welcome by Director, Leuven Institute for Ireland in Europe, Malachy Vallelly
Royalty scene in Warwick Castle.
Red Drawing Room, Blenheim Palace.
Mairead Byrne, Anne Breen, Doreen McBride, George McBride and John Bradley in the gardens at Blenheim Palace.
Lunch in the Spencer-Churchill Room, Blenheim Palace.
Beguinage in Bruges.
On the canal, Bruges.
Christ Church College, Oxford.
The Dining Hall, Christ Church College, Oxford.
Cathedral, Christ Church College, Oxford.
The Camera, Christ Church College, Oxford.
Jimbo Conway and Mairead Byrne laying a wreath at the Menin Gate on behalf of both Federations.
Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland memorial park, Caribou Monument, dedicated to the Newfoundland Regiment and other armies who lost men in battle.
Tyne Cot Cemetery.
Altar and Cross of Sacrifice, Tyne Cot Cemetery.
Spinning Mules at New Lanark, Scotland, June 2014
Enjoying a break from sightseeing at New Lanark Mills. George and Bridgeen Rutherford. Doreen and George McBride, Susan and J. J. Woods
Presentation to Doreen and George McBride on the occasion of their 54th wedding anniversary in the Leuven Institute for Ireland in Europe.
Presentation of behalf of both Federations to Ian Jelf as a mark of appreciation for his excellent guiding and great humour.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
RECALLING THE GREAT MONSIGNOR JAMES HORAN OF KNOCK AIRPORT FAME BY
It’s hard to believe that it’s thirty years since Monsignor James Horan’s airport on top of ‘a foggy, boggy’ hill, to quote the late Jim Mitchell, emerged from a political minefield and began to engage in the realities of commercial aviation. It’s baptism augured far from well. On opening day — May 30th of 1986 — it rained down on Barnacuige in East Mayo as it never rained before. It was as if all the gloom and doom prophesies of the naysayers had sucked up the entirety of the broad Atlantic’s moisture and dumped it down on top of the heads of the five thousand believers who had followed the parish priest of Knock though thick and thin. The downpour was of such biblical proportions that an Ark would have been much more suitable than the jumbos we all dreamed about. It was relentless and not even the calling down by poet Paul Durcan of the blessings of Our Lady of Knock, of Barnalyra, Ballyvary and Portacloy, among other rhyming Mayo locations, managed to attract the impenetrable sun. The drenched crowd of five thousand or more shifted restlessly in sodden clothes. The poem, commissioned by Charles J. Haughey to mark the occasion, was more suited to a sunnier day because of its length; verse after verse droned on as aircraft circled in the sky above the airport, unable to land, while on the soggy platform Haughey was seen to flash his trademark glare from beneath those famously hooded eyes . . . his target was not Durcan but Pee Flynn who had, it was suspected, somehow slipped up with the finer detail. Though not Taoiseach, Haughey had, of course, the honour of opening the airport, the Monsignor declaring that there was only one fiddle to be played that day and it would be played by Charlie who he felt had always stood by him. Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald and his Cabinet had also been invited to attend the ceremony. Rebuffed, they decided to turn down the invite. Predictably, the national media chortled: “In Dublin,” reported the Sunday Tribune, “aviation experts, economists and civil servants shrugged knowledgeably. What else could you expect! ” But of course we in the West had come to expect that kind of ridicule. Six years earlier, after seeing off Pope John Paul II, the buoyed up monsignor had revealed his plan to a small group of incredulous supporters. An airport, a real airport, he had asserted was the only way 87
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 to open up access to the region where emigration and unemployment were so endemic that the area had become known as the Black Triangle. Soon he would put as many as 200 navvies to work on building a runway that would stretch to 8,200 feet. Opposition leader Haughey, his wife Maureen, Brian Lenihan, P. J. 0 Mara, the Fianna Fail press secretary, and poet Durcan set out from Dublin in a small aeroplane that would endure a terrific bouncing about in the air. It got much worse when it entered Mayo airspace and collided with bucketing rain . They could see cattle huddled for shelter in the fields below. As it neared the runway the plane was hit by a gust and flipped on its side. Haughey, a man well versed in political gravity falls, roared to his pilot above whining engine and elemental bombardment: “Tell the control tower we are coming in!” A large contingent of Mayos had made plans to fly in from London, booking four planes to take them from Southend. Only one plane made it into Knock, the other three being diverted. The plane that made it contained people every bit as determined as Monsignor Horan. Tom Beisty from Kiltimagh, founder of the Safe Start foundation set up in London to cater for Irish emigrants then arriving in their thousands, went to the cockpit to talk to the former RAF pilot after he had announced that he had been ordered to land in Dublin because of worsening conditions. “Reminding him that he would be the first airman to fly passengers from England into Knock’s brand new airport, we assured him that a pilot of his fighter-jet calibre could easily follow the N4 and N5 road from Dublin. Then he could bear right at the creamery tower at Ballaghaderreen. We guaranteed him there would be fuel at Knock and begged and pleaded with him for what seemed like an eternity. Eventually, the pilot swung away from Dublin Airport and headed west. The ground-hugging aircraft touched down in torrential rain, and much to the consternation of the airport’s authorities, passengers, well fuelled on their duty free allowance, alighted in great form and kissed the tarmac, a la the pope. Mayo GAA supporters, booked to fly to London immediately after the opening ceremony, waited in vain for a plane that could not land. Bussed that evening to Shannon, It would be 3 o’clock the following morning before they got to bed in their London accommodation. To make matters worse, a bomb scare at Southend airport on the return leg delayed their flight so that they could not land at Knock, which was then without landing lights. Diverted to Dublin, some supporters and players from remote areas of the county not reaching their homes until 5 or 6 am the following day. One supporter called for a investigation into the ‘cocks up’ at Knock and Southend; it was a ‘disgraceful mess’, he said. Seven months earlier, all was sweetness and light when three Aer Lingus jets lifted off from the glistening tarmac on which a golden October sun 88
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 danced. To mark the Golden Jubilee celebrations of the Knock Shrine Society, a trip to Rome was planned and the planes were packed to capacity. That was the day strong men cried and rosary beads rattled as the planes rose into clear blue skies and headed for the Eternal City. The trip cost pilgrims £420 each, all in, for 8 magical days, which included an audience with John Paul II. Away from all his critics and Board tensions, Horan was reinvigorated. He was the life and soul of the party, in the evenings, after a hectic schedule of sight-seeing, he’d lead the singsong with renditions of Moonlight in Mayo, He’s Got the Whole World in his Hands, and If I can Help Somebody. On the way home, it was in the departures hall at Ciampino Military Airport that the reality of what had been achieved fully dawned on Horan and the indefatigable Dame Judy Coyne, the woman who did more than most to put the Shrine on the map, and indeed to bring the Pope to Ireland. A diminutive 84 years old figure and leader of the legendary handmaids, she peered up at a monitor flashing the Knock-bound departure times. She had an unmistakable air of quiet satisfaction about her. Within minutes the Monsignor (74) looked at the same monitor: there, above him, was proof that his airport was now ranked with international destinations. He had put the West of Ireland on the map. They said it couldn’t be done, but he had just gone and done it. Just before touch-down back at Knock, he told a close friend, “it’s there now and they cannot dig it up again.” But as soon as the aircraft doors opened, the critics tore into him again. Media and politicians wanted to know where he was going to get the money to finish the project. Even members of the his own airport board accused him of going on a solo run, of hogging the limelight. A year later he would be dead, at peace. His job completed. A few months after the opening, his coffin was the first to be flown into the airport. He had died in his sleep on 1 August while on a pilgrimage to Lourdes. The inquest showed he died of a clot, thought to be a delayed reaction to a hernia operation a month earlier. This old man in a hurry had ignored medical advice to rest. He wanted to be up and about to welcome the first flight from New York, which he did in regal style. Hundreds of thousands attended his obsequies, and into his open grave — in the shadow of the Basilica he had built — mourners threw money, perhaps, as journalist Michael Finlan observed, making a wish in the belief that here was one man who could make it come true. Well, he had moved mountains after all. No wonder Michael O’Leary of Ryanair had called him a genius. Though it drew much of Horan’s ire, it was the Fine Gael/Labour Coalition that funded the bulk of the money pledged, around £10 89
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 million. Of the shortfall of some £4 million, Monsignor Horan and his team raised £3m with his successor Monsignor Dominick Grealy raising the balance. Today the airport employs 150 staff, supports over 9,000 jobs and is worth €130 million annually to the region, with 750,000 passengers accessing over 20 routes. * Terry Reilly is author of On a Wing and a Prayer, the story of Knock Airport (2006)
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
IRELAND’S FIRST MOTOR CAR PASSENGER FATALITY BY
The golden years of motoring are said to have been between 1895 and 1933 when motorists were able to travel over the roads of the country without being subject to the current vast array of motor traffic laws and regulations now in force. In 1903 the national speed limit was raised from 12 mph to 20 mph while in 1904 cars vehicle registration was introduced for the first time and the age limit to hold a driving licence fixed at 17. It was reported at that time that a number of underage drivers were put off the road until they reached the legal age limit — driving tests in Ireland were not introduced until the 1960’s. The transition from horse-drawn to horseless vehicles meant that many coachmen were employed in the new role as chauffeurs while astute coach builders began to specialise in car body building as many of the early cars were sold on a engine and chassis basis only, leaving the choice of bodywork type and style to the owner with these car bodies often made of timber and light metal and could disintegrate easily in a accident or collision. Up to Thursday 8 September 1904 no car passenger had died in an Irish motor car accident but on that day, a motor car owned by Mr. Malcolm Gray, The Standard Hotel, Harcourt Street, Dublin, grandson of Sir John Gray, containing himself, his wife, his mother who was daughter of Sir John Gray, and a Mrs. Butler, driven by Mr. John Davey, a chauffeur for hire employed by the Irish Motor Company, made history that day with Mr. Davey becoming the first motor car passenger to be killed in Ireland. The party were driving from Arklow Town to Wicklow Town and around 5.15 p.m. reached the bottom of a rather steep incline known at Marleton Hill outside Wicklow Town. By this time Mr. Gray had changed places with Mr. Davey and was driving the car himself and had successfully managed to negotiate a rather steep turn at a bridge crossing a steam when all of a sudden the car ran into a ditch, struck the bank with such force that all the occupants were thrown out of the car onto the roadway as the idea of seat belts was unknown at that time. The car itself turned upsidedown and then righted itself before landing in an upright position on the roadway facing in the direction of Arklow. All the passengers, except Mr. Davey, sustained only minor injuries but he sustained very serious injuries to his head and body. Mr. Michael O’Brien, who was driving a dray of the Phoenix Brewery and witnessed the accident, placed Mr. Davey on it and brought him 91
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 immediately to the Wicklow Infirmary to receive medical attention. Dr. Halpin from the Wicklow Infirmary went out to the accident scene and treated the injured for their minor injuries at the roadside. Sergeant Gilbert, Royal Irish Constabulary, also went to the accident scene where he rendered what assistance he could to the injured. Father Sherwin, C.C., also attended the accident site and after a short time all the injured were taken to the Bridge Hotel in Wicklow Town where they received further medical attention for their injuries. In Wicklow Infirmary Mr. Davey was attended to by Doctors Halpin and Linder where his injuries were considered serious and life threatening with Fr. Sherwin providing spiritual comfort for the badly injured man. Despite the best efforts of the medical staff, Mr. Davey died from his injuries around 6.30 p.m. Later that Thursday night Mr. Gray gave a newspaper interview about the accident in which he gave the following account:- “My motor car was within 20 yards of the Marleton Bridge when the driver snatched the steering gear and I could not say what happened after that until I was thrown out of the car on the road. I now believe the car either struck the ditch or turned over as when I got up the car was righted and turned around the other way — that is say that it was facing towards Arklow instead of Wicklow. I asked the driver who was lying on the road if he was hurt and the poor fellow who appeared to be in great pain replied “Oh let me alone’. Davey had been with me for the past 3 weeks and only for the regrettable accident which ended his life, would have been with me for the next four or five weeks.” During that evening Dr. Richard Lane-Joynt, Surgeon, arrived in Wicklow and visited Mr. Gray in the Bridge Hotel. He was accompanied by Mr. Davey’s wife who became upset when she learned of her husband’s death as they had 6 children. Various experts who visited the accident scene came to the conclusion that the car had overturned as one of the rear wheels was totally collapsed and the steering wheel and associated mechanism totally destroyed — otherwise there was little damage to the vehicle. The following evening, Friday 9 September, Mr. J. Murray, J.P., Coroner for East Wicklow, presided at an inquest into the death the previous evening of Mr. John Davey as the result of a motor car accident at Marleton Hill the previous day. The jury consisted of Mr. Frank McPhail, J.P., (foreman), Mr. William Desaix, Mr.T.G. Blackmore, Mr. J. P. Hopkins, Mr. M. McDonald, Mr. W. J. Haskins, Mr. P. Fitzsimons, Mr. E. Costello, Mr. J. R. Brownlow and Mr. James Waters. District Inspector Toppin represented the police, and Mr. A. Lane-Joynt, Solicitor, Mr. Gray. A clearer picture of what transpired was provided by the following witnesses though it must be noted that there was an absence of 92
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 technical information from the police that would be currently provided by An Garda Siochana at inquests relating to fatalities in motor traffic accidents. The first witness called was Mr. Malcolm Gray who stated: “I live and have been living at the Standard Hotel, Harcourt Street, Dublin, for the past four weeks. I remember Thursday when I was driving a motor car which was my property. I left Dublin about 10.30 in the morning and proceeded through Monkstown, Shankill, and Bray, which we left at 12.30 p.m. and proceeded to Ashford where a stop was made for the purpose of procuring water for the engine and then we went to Woodenbridge which we reached about 2.30 p.m. We left Woodenbridge about an hour or so later and proceeded to Arklow. We did not stop in Arklow but passed through and lost our way going past Kynock’s (Factory and Munitions Works) down Love Lane. After some time we got on the main road for Wicklow and shortly after reaching the main road I changed places with Davey who had been driving since we left Dublin. As it was a good road I thought (that) I would like to drive and Mr. Davey sat in the back of the car. I drove the car without a hitch until the accident occurred. On arriving at the top of Marleton Hill I shut the engine off and when I was within 20 yards of the bridge, I put in the clutch and the car ran on its own weight. When at the corner Davey leaned over to assist in the steering. I did not ask Davey to take the wheel. I also put on the foot brake. I saw nothing after that until I was pitched out on the road. I did not lose control of the steering wheel — the car capsized.” Coroner: “What position was Davey in at that time ?” Gray: “He was sitting to the left of me and leaning in my direction.” District Inspector Toppin: “What speed were you travelling at coming down the hill ?” Gray: “I should say about 20 miles an hour.” Toppin: “Did Davey say anything?” Gray: “He put his hand on the wheel and said something but I did not catch it.” Toppin: “What effect would the foot brake produce ? “ Gray: “It would catch the back two wheels.” Toppin: “Would that cause the car to stop dead ?” Gray: “No, the hand brake would do that.” Toppin: “What is your experience of driving a motor car ?” Gray: “I have been driving that particular car for four weeks and [have] about four year’s experience on other people’s cars.” Toppin: “Did you apply the hand brake coming round the corner ?” Gray: “No. I was going to do this when the accident occurred.” 93
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Toppin: “What do you attribute the accident to ?” Gray: “I think that the back wheel must have broken coming round the corner. I noticed that the road was torn up, but I thought that might have been caused when he [Davey] afterwards pulled the car to the side of the road. “ Mr. Lane-Joynt: “When you were coming down the hill was the brake on ?” Gray: “No, but the engine was disconnected and the clutch was in. The machine was running on it own weight. I did not apply the brake until near the bottom of the hill.” Jury Foreman McPhail: ‛What was Davey’s experience of driving ?” Gray: “I could not tell you but he had a first-class certificate for driving and I had thorough confidence in him. He taught me how to drive.” McPhail: “He helped you to steer the car at the danger point ?” Gray: “Yes. He was sitting over the broken wheel and must have felt something give.” McPhail: “Do you think he had the same confidence in your driving as you had in his ?” Gray: “Yes.” McPhail: “Were you ever down the hill before ?” Gray: “No.” McPhail: “Was Davey ever down it? “ Gray: “Yes.” McPhail: “When did Davey touch the steering wheel ?” Gray: “When the clutch was put in was when Davey touched the steering wheel. The clutch was out on my own initiative when I felt the car swing. Davey was not accountable [responsible] for the accident. I did not think I would not have been able to get around the corner as I thought that the wheel must be broken and I attach no blame to Davey.” Juryman Haskins: “Did you meet a bread van outside Wicklow about two miles ?” Gray: “Yes.” Haskins: “What speed were you going at then ?” Gray: “Sixteen miles per hour.” Haskins: “The driver of that car says you were going at such a great rate that he could not tell who you were — men or women. What horsepower is this car ?” Gray: “Ten-horsepower.” Haskins: “Why did you change place with Davey?” Gray: “I thought I’d like to drive.” Haskins: “Was he a sober man?” 94
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Gray: “Yes. Perfectly.” McPhail: “You state that Davey seized the wheel to help you.” Gray: “Yes.” McPhail: “Then in his opinion you were unable to negotiate the corner ?” Gray: “Evidentially he thought so.” McPhail: “Do you think you were able to negotiate the corner?” Gray: “Yes — if the wheel had not broken.” In reply to question from District Inspector Toppin, Mr. Gray said that Mr. Davey was a married man with 6 children. This concluded Mr. Gray’s testimony and he was then followed by Mr. Thomas Brennan who testified that he was coming down Marleton Hill when the motor car passed him. At the bottom of the hill he saw the back wheel of the car strike the path on the right hand side, capsize (turn upside down) and then right itself, turning around so that it faced in the direction of Arklow. He said that he could not comment on the speed of the car but added that the back wheel was not broken when it struck the path. Another witness, Mr. E. M. Harding, Manager of the Wicklow branch of the National Bank of Ireland, testified that he witnessed the accident which occurred about three or four minutes after 5 p.m. He said that he saw the front wheel of the car after it turned over and it was broken but could not say it was broken prior to the car turning over. Mr.Lane-Joynt: “When and where did you first see the car ?” Harding: “I saw the car coming down the hill.” McPhail: “How do think the accident occurred ?” Harding: “In my opinion the car came round the corner at a discreet speed. The accident happened about 10 yards this side of Marleton bridge. I think the driver’s back wheel must have been broken.” McPhail: “Was the car going at a speed of twenty-five miles an hour ?” Harding: “I could not say. I would not like to be in a car going at that speed.” He was followed by Dr. J. H. Halpin, Wicklow Infirmary, who had treated the deceased for his injuries. He testified that he first saw the deceased around 5.40 p.m. on the evening in question. He said that his collar bone and breast bones were broken and there was a fracture of the scalp. The deceased died from shock as the result of the injuries he had sustained. Dr. Richard Lane-Joynt testified as follows: “I identified that body as that of the chauffeur Davey. I am an expert motorist and would say that if the brakes (of the car) were applied suddenly to the machine it would cause it to skid. On Mr. Gray’s car the brakes would not lock the wheels and it would only skid after a violent application of the hand brake. I 95
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 would have no hesitation in coming down that hill at thirty miles an hour because it was a good road.” Toppin: “I hope you will give us notice when you are going to try it.” Lane-Joynt: “Davey must have believed that something was wrong or else he would not have put his hand over the steering wheel.” McPhail: “Could the accident have been avoided?” Lane-Joynt: “If the car was only going at ten miles per hour and the wheel broke, the accident could not have been avoided.” Mr. Deasaix: “Is it safe to run down a hill like that at twenty miles an hour?” Lane-Joynt : “It is not.” McPhail: “There is no doubt in my mind that the car was going at too great a rate of speed for the gentleman that was driving. I say that in great respect to Mr. Gray. I feel sure that if Doctor Joynt or the chauffeur Davey had charge of the steering gear that they would have been able to negotiate the corner at twenty miles an hour; but don’t think a novice like Mr. Gray could do it.” This concluded the evidence presented at the inquest and the jury then retired to consider its verdict which after deliberation returned the following verdict: “We find that the deceased John Davey, aged 30, chauffeur of motor car No. R.I. 303, the property of Mr. Malcolm NashGray, met his death from injuries received as the result of the motorcar, which was driven by Mr. Nash Gray, turning over at the bottom of the Marleton Hill, Wicklow, on Thursday evening 8 September 1904. We are of the opinion that the accident was the result of the back wheel giving way and that the car was being driven at too great a speed down a hill, the dangerous nature of which was unknown to the driver. We believe it is necessary that a danger sign should be placed at the top of the Marleton Hill; and we desire to express our sincere sympathy with the wife and children of the deceased and commend them to the consideration of Mr. Gray and his friends.” Mr. Lane-Joynt, on behalf of Mr. Gray, returned thanks to the Coroner and the jury members and associated himself with the expression of sympathy with the wife and children of the deceased. He said that he was certain that Mr. Gray and his friends would act on the recommendations of the jury to do something for the wife and children of the deceased. And with that the case was closed, the inquest jury was discharged, with no further action being taken other than Mr. John Davey being recorded as the first motor car passenger to be killed in Ireland. SOURCES The Bray and South Dublin Herald, September 10th & September 17th, 1904. The Wicklow Newsletter, September 10th & September 17th, 1904. The Wicklow People, September 10th & September 17th, 1904.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
NOTES ON CLERICALISM AND CLERICAL EDUCATION IN PENAL TIMES BY MYRA D. KAVANAGH. LAVALLY UPPER, MALLOW, CO. CORK The Irish have a long established passion for education. In the early 1800s, the elements of classical knowledge were still in evidence in rural parts of Kerry and, notwithstanding the penal code, introduced after the Roman Catholic defeat of 1691, the majority of Irish Catholic clergymen of the 18th and early 19th centuries ranked ‘with the most virtuous and learned in Europe’. Most, indeed, had been educated on the Continent. Forced abroad by lack of appropriate instruction at home, they completed their studies and returned to possible death and probable poverty. Commonly these were men of deep religious conviction with strong views concerning the best interests of their countrymen.1 Hundreds of institutional or regular Catholic clergy, those priests that were part of a religious order, were expelled from, or left Ireland, after the Banishment Act of 1697. With them went most of the Bishops thereby hindering the ordination of future priests. An account of the situation pertaining in 1698 is shown in the Appendix. In 1704 and 1731 respectively, the government again enumerated Roman Catholic churchmen resident in Ireland.
A law passed in 1703 ordered secular clergy, i.e. those that were not part of a religious order, to register in their parishes and provide security for their good behaviour. The priests were required to register at the first Quarter Sessions held subsequent to 24 June 1704. Any priest officiating in a parish not his own, was liable to transportation. Should he return, he would face death without benefit of clergy. Any Roman Catholic layman, 16 years or older, could be summoned before two magistrates and questioned, on pain of a year’s imprisonment, for information leading to the conviction of a priest. One thousand and eighty nine Popish Priests, as they were called, registered in Ireland in 1704. The number included, in the guise of Parish Priests, some regular, in addition to secular, clergy and the three remaining Bishops.2 Despite severe legal penalties for those who remained unregistered, there is little doubt that registered numbers fell short of the actual count. Parish Priests were forbidden to keep a curate and, as there were certainly assisting priests present in the country, all of them cannot have been on the register. For a variety of reasons, there were Catholic clergy present who would not have wished to make themselves known to the civil authorities. The true number of Catholic clergy ministering in Ireland in 1704 is believed to have been greater than 1,100.3 The names of those who were registered in Kerry appear in the table below: 97
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 TABLE4 Name
Killfinane, Finuge, Disart
Cahane Morris Carthy Owen
Duagh And Broshnagh [Tu]Osista
Connell Morrough Connell Richard Connor Bryan Connor John Costello Martin
[Cronane] Dermod Croneen Teige Daily Charles Daily Godfry
Bishop Of Burdoux, France Bishop Of Meath Monsieur De Bovo, Bishop Of Nantes, France Bishop Of Cashel Bishop Of Vallus Bishop Of Bassafine Bishop Of Condon Bishop Of Bafzex [Probably Basix] Bishop Of Ardagh Bishop Of Montabone Bishop Of Finbon Bishop Of Xouzus [Uzes] Bishop Of Ossory Bishop Of Cassel [France] Bishop Of Cashel Bishop Of Bassas Archbishop Of Tollosa Archbishop Of Albi Bishop Of Antwerp Bishop Of Burdoux [Bishop Bogez]
Bishop Of Bourdeaux
Bishop Of Xantus Bishop Of Cluonfert Bishop Of Lumbess [Lumbres] Archbishop Of Toulosa
Killgerrynlander, Killsallagh, Part Ballinvogher Killcoleman, Killbonane
Dromod, Ahadoe, Aglish
Dingle And District Thereof Killinane, Kahir
Josephus De Carbone, Archbishop Of Thoulon Bishop Of Bassas Bishop Of Elna Archbishop Of Rheims Bishop Of Dublin
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Stack Anthony Sullivan Dermod Sullivan Mortagh Sullivan Teige
Bishop Of Prague Bishop Of Rhodes Bishop Of Dublin Bishop Of Cambray
Bishop Of Angiers
While there may be doubt as to actual numbers, it is clear that Roman Catholic priests were relatively few in Ireland after 1697. Those present had paid and continued to pay a considerable price for their presence. It is worth noting the age profile of the Kerry priests listed. The youngest was 35 years of age, and the majority far older. Most had been educated and ordained abroad. The number of Irish clerical students visiting the Continent for educational purposes before the French Revolution (1787-99) may be estimated by considering the provision made for their reception. The following figures indicate the state of European scholastic establishments catering to the educational needs of Irish Catholic clergy before 1793. France was by far the most supportive and receptive country in this regard. Rome and Portugal supported only 28 Scholars between them. The total number of Irish Catholic clergy who benefited from a Continental education pre 1793 was in the region of 25 Masters, subsequently involved in teaching abroad, and 478 Scholars, 426 of whom had received gratuitous support. Paris: 1) College des Lombards — 4 Irish Masters, 100 Irish Scholars 2) Community Rue du Chavel Vert — 3 Masters, 80 Scholars. The remainder as follows: Nants: 3 Masters, 80 Scholars; Bourdeaux: 3 Masters, 40 Scholars; Douay: 2 Masters, 30 Scholars; Toulouse: 1 Master, 10 Scholars; Lisle [Lille]: 1 Master, 8 Scholars; Louvain, Belgium: 2 Masters, 40 Scholars; Antwerp, Belgium: 2 Masters, 30 Scholars; Salamanca, Spain: 2 Masters, 32 Scholars; Rome, Italy: 16 Scholars only; Lisbon, Portugal: 2 Masters, 12 Scholars5 The word “master” here denotes a master craftsman in his particular academic field. The circumstance whereby Irish Catholics, in general, could not obtain a satisfactory education at home became a running sore. The 99
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 inhabitants of an island once crowded with educated foreigners, known for its Saints & Scholars, was reduced to begging for instruction abroad. However, when the excesses of the French Revolution banished Irish clerical students from Europe, the Irish Parliament (subordinate to that in London) passed an Act enabling the Catholic priesthood to be educated at home. In so doing, it hoped to increase Catholic loyalty. The number of Scholars to be educated from each district was prescribed by statute — Armagh and Cashel had sixty each, Dublin and Tuam forty each, with an additional fifty from elsewhere. On November 1, 1795, the inauguration of the Royal College of St. Patrick took place at Maynooth, Co. Kildare. The new educational facility, approximately ten miles from Dublin, was located in a handsome private house. The house was purchased by the trustees from the steward of the Duke of Leinster on whose land it was originally built. Extensive wings of similar elevation being added to the front, the building presented a grand, ornamental façade, four hundred feet long. It stood three storeys high, and had a capacity for 250 students at minimum. The Scholars were provided with lodgings, commons, and instruction out of the funds of the establishment to which only £8,000/annum was added by Parliament during the initial years. In consequence of the stringent funding, each student paid £9. 2s. entrance fee with personal expenses calculated at £20/annum, typically for a 5-9 year period. Despite the benefits that Maynooth College brought, the number of ordinations proved wholly inadequate for contemporary Church needs. Additional Colleges were, therefore, established in several dioceses — Cork, Cloyne, Kerry, Waterford, Kilkenny, Carlow and Mayo, being the principal ones. Many of the most promising candidates continued to receive a preparatory education, or completed their studies, in Europe. According to opinion in 1825, the commitment of Irish priests to a hard won education put them among the ‘most virtuous and efficient in the world’.6 The Irish hierarchical system was unquestionably efficient and it would be remiss not to mention the significant power and awe which began to define the Irish Catholic Church in the early 1800s — a fact that may have owed something to unsettled conditions in Europe as much as to circumstance at home. Roman Catholics who differed from their Parish Priest placed themselves decidedly outside the fold. An example is that of Mr. John Kirby, schoolmaster at Blennerville for fourteen years, a gentleman obliged of necessity to seek a more lucrative post. Subsequent events are revealed in his petition to Parliament (1825) in which he affirmed that his mode of education did not employ the catechism, and the attendance of a priest at his school was at all times acceptable to him. His petition included a character reference from a 100
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Roman Catholic Parish Priest, perhaps the same used to gain a new and controversial position.7 In the 1820s missionary zeal was particularly keen among some Protestant Clergymen and, in certain western localities, religious conversion to Protestantism was on the increase. This engendered Catholic antagonism. It happened that the Protestant led, Hibernian School Society, opened a school in the parish of Tralee to which Mr. Kirby was appointed schoolmaster. The school had not been opened many weeks and over one hundred children were enrolled, when Rev. John Quill, coadjutor of the then Parish Priest, (Rev. C. Egan) called and insisted that teaching cease. Rev. Fr Quill alleged that the system of instruction used in the new school would turn the children to Protestantism. Mr. Kirby affirmed that he was a Roman Catholic with no desire to make proselytes to the Protestant Church. However, he felt that he had the right to exercise discretion as to how he made an honest living. Rev. Fr Quill departed angrily and, on Sunday, John Kirby was condemned at Mass as a reformer of the Protestant religion. Excommunication was threatened against anyone who continued to send children to his school. Due to ongoing intimidation, Mr. Kirby quit the immediate vicinity but wherever he went, his contention was, that the influence of the priests preceded him. Above all, he complained of a cruel beating by five persons as an direct result of his disagreement with the Parish Priest.8 While it may or may not be exaggerated in the telling, Mr. Kirby’s story was by no means a singular one. In a comparable incident involving a school established at Rahan, in the Parish of Mallow, Co. Cork, the disapproval of a Roman Catholic Curate, Rev. Michael Scannell, was strongly resisted by the parents involved. At least six families were publicly ‘excommunicated’ at St Mary’s Church, Mallow on 30 January 1831 following which they were ‘held up to public odium and execration, hated, persecuted and slandered’.9 Nevertheless, it would be incorrect to imply that all Roman Catholic priests and Irish Bishops viewed with suspicion and abhorrance, the activities of organizations like The Hibernian Society — ostensibly a charitable body. Many priests prioritized education and sought tirelessly, by its means, to elevate the living standards of the poor. Nor did they deem their Faith or position so weak or their flock so malleable as might be suspected from the activities of some of their brethern. It has been reported that at a meeting on Good Friday, 1818, thirtythree Irish Catholic priests assembled with their bishop to discuss what was essentially co-operative-education. While allowing for freedom of conscience, the bishop ‘heartily’ agreed, for his part, with a contributor who argued from scripture ‘the inconsistency of such as would resist 101
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 the truth, or prevent the education of the poor who were in ignorance’. Again, from The Hibernian Society at this time comes this extract from a letter reportedly written by an Irish Roman Catholic priest: I feel grateful for the confidence which you and the charitable Society repose in me, for my humble exertions in the instruction of the poor. Would to God that all Christians, of whatever denomination, would zealously unite to rescue them from ignorance … 1 understand that some clergymen of my persuasion do not approve or sanction, in their respective parishes, the method offered by the Society for the instruction of the poor Irish; under the apprehension, I suppose, of their gaining proselytes to the Protestant religion. I entertain no suspicion of that tendency; but judge very favourably of their laudable design; and consequently, shall always feel happy in contributing my mile towards the edification of my poor parishioners …10 It might be mentioned that there was considerable hope, at the time in question, that the remnants of the Penal Laws remaining would be repealed. Regrettably, this did not happen until 1829.
APPENDIX An account of the Roman Catholic clergy adapted from a return made in 1698 and communicated by Captain South, onetime Commissioner of Revenue in Ireland.11 Counties Regular Clergy Antrim 5 Armagh 4 Carlow 8 Cavan 5 Clare 18 Cork 30 Derry 5 Donegal 22 Down 4 Drogheda Town 4 Dublin 1 Fermanagh 6 Galway 39 Kerry 19 Kildare 9 Kilkenny 17 Laois 1 Leitrim 13 Limerick 15 Longford 15 Louth 12 102
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Mayo 42 50 Meath 19 23 Monaghan 5 20 Offaly 13 19 Roscommon 24 52 Sligo 31 31 Tipperary 48 39 Tyrone 7 22 Waterford 16 23 Westmeath 16 22 Wexford 16 24 Wicklow 6 15 TOTAL 1367 Numbers of Regular clergy deported by Act of Parliament (1697), their passage and provisions being paid for by Government: From Dublin 153 From Galway 170 From Cork 75 From Waterford 26 TOTAL 424 Captain South’s report was printed in the year 1700 by Samuel Smith and Benjamin Walford, printers to the Royal Society, at the Princes Arms in St Paul’s church yard, London.
Captain Rock in London or the Chieftan’s Weekly Gazette, vol. 1, no. 17, (25 June 1825) p. 130 (2) See M. Carey. Vindiciae Hibernicae or Ireland Vindicated (Philadelphia, Carey & Son, 1819) pp. 483-84 and Laws In Ireland For The Suppression Of Popery Commonly known as the Penal Laws @ http://library.law.umn.edu/irishlaw/clergy.html. Accessed 21 July 2015. (3) S. J. Connolly. Religion, Law, and Power. The Making of Protestant Ireland 16601760 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1992) pp. 149-51 (4) See James Buckley, ‘The Parish Priests of Counties Cork and Kerry in 1740 [sic], Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Ser. 2, vol. 6, no. 45 (1990) pp. 55-60. See also Riobard O’ Dwyer List of Popish Parish Priests; Kerry; 1704 @ Archiver > IRL-KERRY > 1999-11 > 0941752979. Accessed 21 July 2015. (5) Captain Rock in London or the Chieftan’s Weekly Gazette, vol. 1, no. 17 (25 June 1825) p. 130 (6) Ibid. (7) Ibid. p. 129 (8) Roman Catholic Priests—Petition Of John Kirby. (Commons — 01 March 1825) @ hansard.millbanksystems.com. Accessed 21 May 2015. See also The Christian Guardian and Church of England Magazine (March 1826) p. 119 (9) The Constitution or Cork Advertiser, 07 February 1832 (10) John Edwards Caldwell. Christian Herald and Seaman’s Magazine, Volume 5, no. 21 (06 February 1819) pp. 667-68 (11) Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775) vol. 22 (1700-1701) pp. 521-22 @Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/102748. Accessed 21 July 2015.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
ASHBOURNE 1916-2016 The most significant engagement of the Easter Rising, 1916, outside of Dublin, took place at Ashbourne, County Meath. At a crossroads north of the town the 5th Brigade of the Volunteers (Fingal Brigade) forced the surrender of a large contingent of the Royal Irish Constabulary in a lengthy engagement on Friday, 28th April. The battle itself was the final act in a week of activity which saw the Volunteers travel across many areas of North Dublin and Fingal and eventually cross the border into County Meath. In the early part of the week their mission was to collect much needed arms by attacking local RIC Barracks and to disrupt communications into and out of Dublin and locally. While en route to destroy the railway line at Batterstown the Volunteers decided to neutralize the RIC barracks north of Ashbourne. After a siege lasting several hours the RIC men inside the Barracks offered to surrender. As the volunteers prepared to accept the surrender, shouts and shots from the nearby crossroads heralded the arrival of a motorcade of RIC men from Slane. The convoy had been gathered at the insistence of the Marchioness of Conyngham and included up to 60 RIC men and some civilian drivers. A battle ensued lasting up to 5 hours. There were 13 fatalities: 8 RIC men, 2 Volunteers and 3 civilians. It is ironic that as the Fingal Battalion was celebrating its victory the rest of the Volunteers were surrendering in Dublin. The Fingal Battalion returned to camp but were ordered to surrender on Sunday 30th. Ashbourne Historical Society has engaged in a series of projects to mark the centenary of the Battle of Ashbourne. The primary focus of the Ashbourne Historical Society in the lead up to 2016 has been to research and present the story of the Battle of Ashbourne leading to an improved understanding, to set the events in a broad historical and geographical context and to tell the story without bias. The extensive research done by members of our group has been presented in a comprehensive talk to many groups in Meath and Fingal during the last year. This talk has been very well received in Dunshaughlin, Trim, Rolestown, Ashbourne, Garristown and many other venues. In delivering these talks we have had the opportunity to meet many people who have had their own stories to tell of 1916 and of family members who were involved. Working closely with the Battle of Ashbourne Commemoration Committee (BOACC), we presented an exhibition which ran for February and March in the Toradh Gallery in Ashbourne and was visited by many, including school groups. The exhibition is a comprehensive description of the battle, the personalities involved, its dramatic unfolding and the aftermath. The exhibition also records 104
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 the names of the Volunteers and the RIC men who were present on the day. Also on display was a rare collection of artefacts — letters, photographs, uniforms, etc. The exhibition was kindly supported by Meath County Councils Arts Office and was opened by Thomas Ryan (renowned artist living locally). During Easter Week the exhibition was on view at Fairyhouse Racecourse to coincide with the re-enactment of the Grand National of 1916. As there was so much interest in the exhibition it was re-opened in a vacant shop unit in the town for a further five weeks in May and June. More recently the exhibition has been on loan to Sligo County Library and has been on view in Sligo City Hall. Plans were completed for the erection of an Information board at the site of the battle, with narrative and graphics giving the background and chronology of the story, the principal players on both sides of the Battle and the names of all who lost their lives. The unveiling of the Information Board was held with a commemoration ceremony in conjunction with Fingal Old IRA Commemoration Society and relatives of those involved in the battle. The unveiling of the Board took place in February so the board was in situ for the State Ceremonial Event in April. This project was generously funded by local subscription and by Meath Council Centenary of the 1916 Rising Community Commemorative Grant Scheme. The National Day of Commemoration on Easter Monday 2016 was marked in Ashbourne, as in other venues around the country, with a wreath laying ceremony. This was preceded by a re-enactment of the battle by members of the Battle of Ashbourne Centenary Commemoration Group (BOACC). A number of our members contributed to the debates and programmes in RTE’s ‘Reflecting the Rising’ on Easter Monday. The monument at the site of the Battle of Ashbourne was erected in 1959 by Fingal Old IRA Commemorative Committee in memory of the two Volunteers who died in the Battle. To coincide with the unveiling, Fingal Old IRA published Leabhar Cuimhneacháin 1916, Ashbourne Memorial Book. The booklet, a valuable historical document in its own right, includes an account of the Battle by Colonel J. Lawless, and 105
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 describes the vision of sculptor Peter Grant. It has been reprinted by us as a 2016 souvenir edition, with the permission of the Fingal Old IRA Commemorative Committee. The RIC Barracks at the centre of the story of the Battle of Ashbourne was burnt out in the early 1920s. The original gates of the RIC Barracks have been given to Ashbourne Historical Society on long-term loan and have been restored and erected in the grounds of Ashbourne Garda Station with a small explanatory plaque. Our research into the events in and around Ashbourne continues. We hope to have ignited interest in local history and to leave a legacy of information and improved understanding for future generations.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
1916 CENTENARY COMMEMORATION BY
Bantry Historical and Archaeological Society had a very successful Centenary Commemoration Programme for Easter 1916. Starting in early March 2016 a fascinating exhibition, consisting of five panels of data – Bantry 1916 and beyond – was showing in Bantry Library until the end of the month. This exhibition received outstanding reviews from everyone who had the privilege of seeing it, both local and visitors, including the many relatives of those who took part in the Bantry to Kealkill Parade on Easter Sunday 1916. Because of its popularity, this exhibition was showing again in Bantry Library during Heritage Week 2016. The exhibition gives an interesting, though brief, account of events in Ireland that led up to the 1916 Rising, as well as detailing events that took place in Bantry area on Easter Sunday 1916. The eighteen men who took part in the Bantry to Kealkill Parade are also profiled. Of course, Dublin is also mentioned, especially some lesser known aspects associated with the Rebellion. The exhibition concludes with an interesting take on what may have contributed to the local inspiration of Bantry men towards Nationalism at that time. It also documents some subsequent thinking of the Bantry Town Commissioners showing a very nationalistic spirit, having already got the name of the town square changed to Wolfe Tone Square.
1916 A REFLECTION, WITHIN THE NATIONAL MARCUS KEYES. 22ND MARCH 2016
Bantry Library was packed to capacity on Tuesday, 22nd March, 2016, when Marcus Keyes (son of Raphael P Keyes) gave a most informative talk on the above-mentioned title. Here, Marcus drew from the rich history of day-to-day events in the life of Bantry Volunteers, compiled by his father who was actively involved at the time and indeed in subsequent years. He outlined the precise history of the setting up of a branch of the Irish Volunteers in Bantry, listed their activities and who was involved. He detailed the occasion when Terence MacSwiney visited them and gave instructions for Easter Sunday 1916. Marcus went on to acknowledge the violence of Easter week 1916, but reminded the audience that it was not the violence of a conquering nation but a revolutionary response by some members of a conquered and oppressed people. The Rising was a response, said Marcus, to an Empire that wanted to hold onto what it had taken and kept by force. 107
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Many men and women were willing to be part of that Rising, although as it turned out, it was confined mainly to Dublin.. Many people from all over Ireland took part in the Rising in Dublin, including Joe O’Reilly of Chapel Street, Bantry. Marcus paid tribute to all the men and women who took part in the 1916 Rising and those who did not actually take part, but were willing to do so.
BANTRY VOLUNTEERS – EASTER SUNDAY 1916
This was celebrated on Easter Sunday, 27th March, 2016, when Bantry Historical and Archaeological Society hosted a Welcome Reception for the relatives of the eighteen participants in the Bantry to Kealkill Parade 1916. Most of these relatives had travelled from all corners of the country, as well as USA and England. A letter was read out from the family of one participant in the U.S. who was unable to attend. The day’s events started with the unveiling of a Commemorative Plaque near Bantry Library by Sr. Mary O’Donovan of Dublin and Mark O’Sullivan of Cork, whose respective late fathers were two of the Bantry men who participated in the 1916 Parade to Kealkill. Sean Cotter, son of Sean Cotter who was another participant in Parade to Kealkill, delivered a relevant speech to the large gathering, while David Walshe, grandson of Christy Walsh who was also a participant in Parade to Kealkill, read out the list of names of those who paraded on Easter Sunday 1916. The large crowd was then led in procession through the town of Bantry to Áras Beanntraí by a lone piper who played appropriate tunes. Refreshments were served by the catering Group of the Historical Society, while relatives of participants in 1916 were afforded an opportunity to speak on behalf of their ancestors who participated, as well as mingle with all the other families present. The actual parade to Kealkill was then re-enacted with the group travelling to Kealkill to attend centenary commemoration ceremony there, with Irish dancing, unveiling plaque, relevant speeches, including that of Marcus Keyes, followed by the Raising of Flag. On Monday, 25th April, 2016, Bantry Historical and Archaeological Society hosted a Presentation by Neill Clarke, local businessman, on Joseph O’Reilly, Bantry’s link with GPO, Dublin, Easter week 1916. He was in the General Post Office, Dublin, during the Uprising from Easter Monday, 24th April, 1916. Neill gave details of many incidents in Joseph O’Reilly’s life, leading up to Easter 1916 and the years following same. Throughout the summer months of 2016, the members of Bantry Historical Society decided to gather together all the relevant information that was made available through research, and more significantly, from Witness Statements published by the Bureau of Military History. Initially, the plan was to have something very simple, but as work 108
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 progressed, and the volume of data increased significantly, the end result was the publication of a 90-page booklet with the title of Bantry Remembers 1916-1921 This book(let) details the events leading up to 1916, the Uprising in Dublin, and all the details of who did what in Bantry at Easter 1916, as well as the following years right up to the Truce in July 1921. There is an article by Gerry White, military historian and author, on Easter 1916 in Cork, and also an article on Sean Hurley who was the only county Cork man who lost his life as a result of the events in Dublin during Easter Week. This is written by his grand niece Kathleen Hurley California. This book(let) is available from Bantry Book Shop at €10, and a reprint has already been obtained as it is “flying off the shelves” there.
From l to r: Jenny Dempsey (graphic design), Denis O’Sullivan, Angela O’Donovan, Conor Nelligan (Heritage Officer), Noel O’Mahony (Bantry Library). Photo by Adrian Cronin.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
l to r: Rósin Dawson (Enniscorthy), Marcus Keyes (USA), Cáit Keyes (Bantry), Sharon Cotter (Galway) amd Sean Og Cotter (Bray) - ancestors of all took part in the 1916 parade in Bantry. (Photo by Seamus Larkin).
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
THE JEREMIAH O’DONOVAN ROSSA CASKET AND THE COBH CONNECTION Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa made his final journey back to Ireland in a steel casket, which was used to transport the coffin, containing the mortal remains of this famous Fenian leader across the Atlantic from New York to Ireland in 1915. His stated wish was he would be buried in Ireland amongst his own people. On August 1st, 1915, his funeral took place in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, and it was regarded as one of the largest political funerals in Irish history. This was also the occasion of Padraig Pearse’s famous graveside oration with the O’Donovan Rossa funeral being seen as the Road to the 1916 Rising Many stories in Cobh over the years were told of the O’Donovan Rossa casket and on whose farm it was located in the Cobh area. Sometime recently I had a telephone conversation with Sean O’Sullivan, a farmer on the Great Island, whose grandfather and also his uncle, were both named Denis O’Sullivan (Denis Jnr being known as Sonny). I told him that I had heard over the years that O’Donovan Rossa’s casket had been on Sonny O’Sullivan’s farm. He said that on the day in question both Sean’s Grandfather and uncle had made their way in to Cobh (or Queenstown as it was then known) when they had heard that the O’Donovan Rossa casket was on the quayside having made its way down from Dublin. It was the Grandfather, Denis senior, who acquired the casket which was made of steel. In those days these types of caskets were used as feeding troughs for animals. The steel casket was inside a shed on O’Sullivan’s farm in the early 1960s when Michael O’Sullivan, who was a member of the Garda Siochana stationed in Cobh, had occasion, during the course of his duties, to visit the farm situated on the outskirts of the Cobh area. While having a conversation with the farmer he was asked where he was a native of and in reply he said he was from Reenascreena, Rosscarbery in West Cork. O’Sullivan, the farmer stated ‘So you come from the O’Donovan Rossa country’ and proceeded to ask him if there were any relations of O’Donovan Rossa still living in the area. Garda O’Sullivan told him there were and that he knew them very well. The farmer had Michael O’Sullivan accompany him to the shed in the yard and he showed him the casket which he stated had brought O’Donovan Rossa’s remains to Ireland in 1915 and had remained in the shed over all those years. Recognising that the former Garda knew O’Donovan Rossa’s relations in Reenascreena the farmer stated that he would be very pleased to hand the casket over to him to return to Rossa’s relatives there. Garda 111
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 O’Sullivan agreed to the request as he felt the proper place to have the casket permanently housed was in Reenascreena in Rossa’s ancestral home. He then conveyed the news to O’Donovan Rossa’s relations, the O’Driscoll family, whose father was a first cousin to Rossa. Shortly afterwards he accompanied Mr Patrick O’Driscoll and his brother Mr Denis O’Driscoll to Cobh and brought the casket back to their home in Reenascreena where it has remained ever since.*
CORK HARBOUR ISLANDS PROJECT & GREAT
JOHN HENNESSY PC ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY
*The restored casket went on display in 2016 in Reenascreena, birthplace of O’Donovan Rossa.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
JOINS THE BY
Accredited Genealogists Ireland joined the Federation of Local History Societies in 2016. Despite being a new member of the FLHS, AGI has been in existence for three decades. Until 2015 AGI was known as APGI, the Association of Professional Genealogists in Ireland. The name change reflects more accurately the organisation’s mission of providing accreditation for Irish professional genealogists. AGI is an all-Ireland organisation, founded in Belfast in 1986. At that time most Irish genealogical records were only accessible in repositories in either Dublin or Belfast. For that reason the small numbers of professional genealogical researchers in Ireland were based within easy distance of these two centres. There were various reasons why these researchers felt the need for an accrediting body by the mid-1980s. A major one was the perennial problem of counteracting the practices of fly-by-night ‘genealogists’. Providing the public with a group of accredited professionals would fulfil the twofold purpose of protecting clients from disreputable researchers and providing competent researchers with credentials. Another major reason was the one that provided most impetus, certainly for those in the Republic. This was the need to have a say in the future development of genealogy in Ireland. There was a huge change in the early 1980s. Actually, it was through the FLHS that it became known that EEC/EU funding for youth employment schemes would allow for
AGI and ASGRA visiting the Linen Hall Library in Belfast
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 local heritage projects. There was an explosion of indexing projects concentrating on church registers. By 1985 there were genealogyrelated indexing projects being conducted in ten counties. Because they were locally based the groups indexing church registers were well placed to get political support for further funding. Both the local organisations and politicians were more or less unaware that there were small but long established communities of professional genealogists centred on Dublin and Belfast. When it became apparent that these indexing centres would get government funding to develop a research service, professional genealogists had to find a voice. Irish professional genealogists wishing to have credentials had the option from 1968 of applying for membership of the Association of Genealogists and Record Agents, based in England and primarily having English members. A few Irish researchers joined AGRA, but its focus was not specific to Ireland. In the early 1980s the idea of establishing a professional association for Irish genealogists was mooted in Dublin but nothing happened. It was at the initiative of Belfast-based researchers that an organisation was eventually started. They held general meetings on 11 March and 13 May 1986. At the second of these APGI was formed. Any genealogist in Ireland who was an AGRA member was to be eligible for automatic membership of the new association. Others would have their applications vetted by existing Irish AGRA members. That arrangement was shortlived. Genealogists who had been in full time practice for at least one year or in part-time practice for at least two years were eligible to apply for membership. That condition remains to this day. Later in 1986 those behind the new organisation approached their Dublin-based colleagues about establishing a parallel body in Dublin. At a general meeting of Dublin-area researchers it was decided that membership of AGRA could not be a criterion for membership of any new organisation and that membership applications should be vetted by independent assessors. A number of people knowledgeable on genealogical sources or research (e.g. librarians, archivists, academic historians or retired genealogists) agreed to serve as voluntary and independent assessors. In February 1987 the Dublin steering committee visited Belfast to meet what was then the Ulster Section. It was agreed that the members of the Ulster Section would submit reports to be vetted by the independent assessors. During the summer of 1987 the assessors began examining applications from Dublin-based applicants. Those admitted in Dublin held the first general meeting of the Dublin Section on 16 October 1987. 114
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The Ulster and Dublin Sections operated as separate branches of APGI until the organisation’s first annual general meeting, in December 1988. At the proposal of the Ulster Section, from then forward APGI functioned as a united organisation under a single council. Developments in Irish genealogy progressed rapidly from the late 1980s, with the Irish Genealogical Project being promoted with cross-border co-operation. APGI was represented on the various committees that fostered the IGP. One outcome of this was a new Genealogy Advisory Service started in 1989 at the Genealogical Office, run in partnership with APGI. In 1998 the service transferred to Janet Bishop Chairman of ASGRA Máire the National Library. In 2003 the Mac Conghail President of AGI National Archives established a similar service, operated by APGI. The organisation was very proud that these services were referred to as providing ‘the most impressive guidance’ in a worldwide survey of genealogical facilities conducted for FamilySearch.org. APGI reluctantly discontinued its participation at the National Library in 2007 and at the National Archives in 2012. In the 1990s APGI was a founding member of the Council of Irish Genealogical Organisations. AGI continues to support this very necessary body of voluntary organisations. From 2009 to 2013 APGI ran the Diploma in Family History course with Independent College, Dublin, introducing over 90 mature students to genealogical sources and research methods in 12-week hands-on courses. A measure of the success of these courses is that six former students later became AGI Affiliates and, so far, three of them have been admitted as AGI Members. In June 2004 APGI introduced a Fellowship to honour members who made exceptional contributions to Irish genealogy or to the association. In December 2012 it introduced the Affiliate category for genealogists working towards accreditation. In December 2015 it introduced an Emeritus Member category for retired longstanding members. 115
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The most significant change APGI made was in 2015 when an extraordinary general meeting voted to alter the organisation’s name to Accredited Genealogists Ireland. This decision was not made lightly. To an extent it was forced on the association by the international growth of an American non-accrediting networking organisation with a similar name. As APGI was slowly losing its identity it was necessary to adopt a new name that reflected its status as an accrediting organisation for genealogists, guaranteeing competence to their clients. Over the thirty years some 22 independent assessors have admitted 57 genealogists to membership. Since 2012 the organisation’s Council has accepted 11 Affiliates, five of whom have progressed to membership. Currently there are 32 Members who are based in 15 counties. In recent years AGI has provided continuing professional development for Members and Affiliates. The CPD events have both educational and social aspects. Early in 2016 AGI formed an alliance with its counterpart in Scotland, the Association of Scottish Genealogists and Researchers in Archives. On 19-20 September AGI hosted the first joint CPD event between the two associations, held in AGI’s home town of Belfast. [ABOUT PAUL GORRY: Paul Gorry is a Member of AGI, working full-time as a professional genealogist. He is a member of the West Wicklow Historical Society and the Co. Kildare Archaeological Society and a Fellow of the Irish Genealogical Research Society]
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
CELEBRATING CORK PAST EXHIBITION 2016 BY
This is the third year that the Federation of Local History Societies has availed of the opportunity to have a stand at this exhibition which is held annually in City Hall Cork, as a forum for local history groups across the city and county to showcase Cork’s heritage, tradition and culture. The first exhibition was held in 2009 as a result of a meeting of local history and community representatives on the invitation of then Lord Mayor of Cork, Cllr. Brian Bermingham who wanted to brainstorm ideas on how to effectively promote Cork heritage, tradition and culture. The 2016 exhibition was the eighth annual exhibition and was dedicated to a 1916 Commemoration theme. Over 40 historical societies participated in the event – each having a stand that reflected in some way on the 1916 Rising. Cork Lions Club presented a trophy for the best stand, which was won by Ballyphehane Commemoration 1916 Group. The Ballyphehane Group’s stand stood out with an attractive display of emblems and photographs relating to the Rising and the development of their locality over the years since 1916. It included photographs of Padraig Pearse and James Connolly alongside photographs of signage relating to two roads in Ballyphehane named in their honour. The Cobh Animation Team were a particular highlight of the exhibition due to their illustration of life in 1916, firstly by inviting those present to mid-morning “1916 Afternoon Tea”, at that time of the day when the programme for events such as the exhibition that we were attending, would have a tea/coffee break included. The striking feature of this was that the tables were set on opposite sides of the room, with a difference in presentation between the two, that highlighted the distinction between social classes of the time. Simple, but effective. Later the Team presented a talk on “The Women of 1916” in which individual team members were dressed in 1916 attire to resemble individual women who played significant roles in the Rising. Each character was introduced by narrator Claire Cullinane, who outlined the character’s involvement, highlighting the unique roles that women played during the Rising. To mark the 1916 Centenary, the Celebrating Cork Past 2016 Festival Committee compiled a souvenir booklet which outlines the origins of the annual exhibition, the 2016 programme and notes on the activities of some of the participating groups. Each participating group was presented with a copy. 117
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
The Federation of Local History Societies was represented by committee members Eamon Leonard and Clare O’Halloran.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
OUTINGS OF THE CLOYNE LITERARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY IN EARLY 2016 SATURDAY 28 MAY,
AN AFTERNOON AT
A tour of the house was led by Eileen Cronin, local historian and volunteer at Fota, including the top floors now re-opened to the public. Eileen is a mine of knowledge about the place, as she is the niece of Patty Butler, who worked at Fota House from 1947 to 1975. Besides the famous arboretum and the gardens, our group greatly enjoyed the Victorian orangery and the recently renovated glasshouses. Finally, all participants reconvened at the coffee shop to listen to Patty herself, our guest-of-honour, who went from being a servant, to being a nanny for the children of the family, to caring for Mrs Dorothy Bell toward the end; a unique exchange for all.
SATURDAY 18 JUNE,
OUR ANNUAL OUTING TO
It all started with a committee meeting where one member suggested Portlaw, because this historic village is now offering a comprehensive guided tour, well-advertised in our circles. Another member suggested checking out Curraghmore House as well — only a few miles from Portlaw — which had just changed hands and was never before opened to the public. That was the 2016 outing wrapped up for us! The prosperity of Portlaw started with a cotton mill, developed by the Malcomson Quaker family at the end of the Eighteenth Century. Today, a small, but well documented, heritage centre displays memorabilia from the family and shows the evolution of the village. Our enthusiastic guide had us all ‘hooked up’, walking at a leisurely pace along the main streets and in the outskirts of the village, without traffic or nuisances. The morning ended up in a convivial setting at the local pub of Portlaw, by the river. The bus then brought us to Curraghmore House. It was only recently that the new Lord Waterford started to open the house to visitors. The oldest part of the building is a medieval tower house and the big house was added around it in 1700. Our group was split in two: one group for the tour of the house, the other one for a stroll in the extensive gardens, then swapping around. This arrangement allowed great freedom to both halves, with plenty of time to be spent between the imposing rooms of the house, the gardens and the fernery around the shell cottage. We had a lot to talk about during our evening meal at The Old Thatch in Killeagh, an ideal venue for a bunch of hungry travellers. 119
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
RATHMICHAEL HISTORICAL SOCIETY, SHANKILL, CO.DUBLIN BY
The Society’s year started as usual with the AGM which was followed by a talk by our Chairman, John Lennon, on the stained glass windows of his own area, Dundrum. In February, David Doyle told us the interesting story of the Reverend Thomas Goff of Carriglea and this was followed the following month by Aideen Ireland’s talk on the legal intricacies of The Broighter Hoard as Treasure Trove. The Spring session concluded with Charles Doherty’s latest research on Kingship. We also followed the lead of the Federation in having our away weekend in Kinsale this year. The Summer outings included a visit to a 17th century building hidden beneath the fabric of a modern shop at 9/9A Aungier Street, a guided tour of Monto (the old red light district of Dublin), a guided tour of the misnamed Stillorgan Grottos and (correctly named) Stillorgan Obelisk and a guided tour of Ely House in Ely Place. The 42nd Summer Lecture Series in August included talks on Glendalough (including up-to-the minute results of the current archaeological excavation), the proto-manor of Bre, exceptional women in early medieval Ireland and Pat Wallace’s memories and anecdotes about his interesting and fruitful career. The first talk of the Autumn session was a detective story by Con Manning on his attempts to identify the 19th century artist who painted wonderful watercolours of Irish round towers. This will be followed by talks on 19th century trawlers in Dublin Bay by Cormac Louth and on stone bridges of the Dublin area by Rob Goodbody.
SOUTH EAST GALWAY ARCHAEOLOGICAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY BY
This year was the third for the South East Galway Archaeological & Historical Society (SEGAHS) at its home at the Irish Workhouse Centre (Portumna), and 2016 was the busiest ever for the society with the Spring series of lectures particularly busy. 120
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The yearly field trip was taken to Lorrha in Co Tipperary, on Saturday, May 21st, as guests of the LorrhaDorrha Historical Society. The engagements of the historical societies across the Shannon form part of wider initiatives to develop common heritage and tourism programmes in the future. On Saturday, July 9th, our conference titled ‘Archaeology of the Big House, Demesne Landscape and Landlord’s Village’ took place at the Irish Workhouse Centre. The conference was made available as part of the Galway Community Archaeology Advisory Project, led by our own Dr Christy Cunniffe. Among the guests were 40 Teachers from across the U.S. The profile of the society has continued to rise, aided by partnerships with the Irish Workhouse Centre. Four seasonal SEGAHS newsletters were again published and all editions continue to be made freely available at clonfert.org/download.htm. SEGAHS remain active on social media, at www.facebook.com/SEGAHS, on twitter @SEGAHSIreland, and via e-mail at [email protected] or on mobile at 086 4070851.
Pictured are the SEGAHS members and friends at the society’s Field Trip to Lorrha on May 21st. The society were guests of the Lorrha Dorrha Historical Society.
Pictured at the South East Galway Archaeological & Historical Society conference at the Irish Workhouse Centre - Portumna on July 9th are the Speakers: Ann O’Toole, Christy Cunniffe, Bryn Coldrick, Paul Gosling, Marie Boran, and Terence Reeves-Smith; John Joe Conwell is absent from the photo.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
GREYSTONES ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HISTORICAL SOCIETY BY
Greystones Archaeological & Historical Society has enjoyed yet another successful and action-packed year, with a full programme of events, and excellent support for our various initiatives. On Monday, March 30, 2015 we embarked on our annual spring trip, this time to Inishowen and Derry. On the way up we visited the Print Museum at Strabane, before going on to our very comfortable hotel, the An Grianan at Burt. The following day we met up with our local guide, Dessie McCallion, with whom we visited, among other places, the church at Burt, the nearby Grianan of Aileach, St Mura’s Cross at Fahan and St Buadan’s Bell at Culdaff. On the following day we travelled to Derry for a bus and walking tour of the city, followed by lunch and a tour of the very fascinating Prehen House, led by the owner, Colin Peck. Local historian Ruth Garvey Williams joined us for dinner on Wednesday evening, and gave us an illustrated talk on John Newton, the author of ‘Amazing grace’ and anti-slavery campaigner, and his links with Buncrana. We travelled home on Thursday, visiting National Trust property The Argory near Dungannon on the way. Despite miserable weather, this was an extremely enjoyable trip. As ever, the quality of our guides was key, and we were also struck by the welcome extended and enthusiasm shown by the local people we met at our various stops, all of whom left us with the happiest memories of a spectacularly beautiful and uniquely interesting part of the country. Our first Sunday outing of the year took place on May 24, and focussed on the Dublin area: we visited the Little Museum of Dublin, followed by a walking tour of St Stephen’s Green, led by Donal Fallon, and after lunch travelled on to the National Museum of Ireland at Collins Barracks, and finally to the Irish National War Memorial Garden at Islandbridge. In June we visited Co Louth, beginning with a tour of Mellifont Abbey, and moving on to Monasterboice. In the afternoon we took a walking tour of the village of Collon, and ended the day with a tour of Collon House, home of the last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, John Foster, followed by afternoon tea. Our July outing was to Kilkenny, with visits to the Castle, Rothe House and St Mary’s Church in Gowran, and in August we visited Craanford Mill and Coollattin House in Shillelagh, returning home via Preban Graveyard, where we were shown around by one of our past speakers, Yvonne Whitty, and the World War I Memorial at Woodenbridge. 122
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The La Touche Legacy weekend, which is a co-operative effort between our own society and the La Touche Legacy Committee, took place in 2015 on the weekend of September 25-27. Once more, this was an extremely successful event, attracting a high level of publicity and with an overflow audience for all the talks. The theme on this occasion was ‘Reflections on the Great War and the Easter Rising’, and speakers included Dr Clara Cullen of UCD, who spoke on the wartime diaries of Elsie Henry, last year’s Jim Brennan Memorial lecturer, Turtle Bunbury, who signed copies of his newly-published book on the 1916 Rising, Easter Dawn, and Eva O’Hara from Greystones, and a student at Loreto, Bray, who gave an impressively fluent and extremely well-received account of her research into local WW1 soldier, James Lawless. Speakers on Saturday were John O’Keeffe and Ian Kenneally on ‘The psychology of the fighting Irish’ and ‘Propaganda during World War I’ respectively, Philip Orr on ‘The 36th Ulster Division’ and Professor Susan Schreibman of the ‘Letters of 1916’ Project. The Jim Brennan Memorial Lecture on Sunday morning was given this year by Michael McGinley, who spoke on ‘The La Touche soldiers’. Assistance was provided by committee members Aileen Short, Joan Jones, Anne Hanna and Frank and Alice Deignan, who variously chaired sessions, stewarded, manned the Society’s stand and helped to sell books throughout the three days of the conference. The La Touche Legacy weekend also saw the launch, by Turtle Bunbury, of the latest, eighth volume of the Greystones Archaeological and Historical Society Journal. As ever, our editor, Frank Deignan, put an enormous amount of work into locating contributions, getting them in on time and putting them in shape for publication, and this was a very attractive production, which has sold extremely well, thanks in no small part to the efforts of committee member, Leo Ireton. Contributors to this issue included Lord Meath, Ann Ferris, Jim Scannell, Brian White, Seamus Hayden and Colin Love, and articles included appreciations of two of our longest-serving members, Canon Bob Jennings (by Frank Deignan) and Beatrice Gunning (by Joan Jones). Our autumn/winter season of lectures began on October 22, 2015, with an extremely well-attended talk by Seamus Hayden on ‘The Cul of the Rock’, and we had another very full audience in November for Colin Short’s description of ‘A Wicklow tour in 1852’. Our Christmas outing was on Tuesday, 8 December, and took the form of an afternoon tea and musical afternoon at the Glendalough Hotel, with entertainment supplied by our own members– particular thanks to Leo Ireton, Kevin O’Dea, Mary Killilea, Beatrice Gunning and Bob Jennings for their contributions. Our first meeting of 2016 took place on January 21, when we heard a paper from Bryan MacMahon of Kilmacud and Stillorgan Local History 123
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Society on Robert Tressell, Dublin-born author of the socialist bible, The ragged-trousered philanthropists. Our February guest was Tommy O’Rourke, of neighbouring Kilmacanogue Historical Society, on the subject of his recent book, ‘The hedge schools of Co Wicklow’. Two further initiatives during the year should be mentioned: the first was the launch at Greystones Library on June 4, 2015 of Trails of Greystones, a walking tour designed by Joan Jones and Rosemary Raughter, with photographs by Pat Killilea. Produced in association with the La Touche Legacy Committee, this was available free of charge throughout the summer in the library and in a number of shops around the town, and will, we believe, be of interest both to local people and to visitors to the area and to Wicklow generally. Secondly, following a number of approaches and requests for information from local schools over the past couple of years, it was agreed by the committee that we should compile a schools’ information pack, consisting of copies of the walking tour and of a number of the Society’s publications, including volumes 7 and 8 of our journal and the two volumes of Greystones: its buildings and history, as well as information on the Society’s aims and activities. This pack was presented before Christmas 2015 to all primary and secondary schools in the area. The donation attracted considerable attention in the local media, helping to raise awareness of the Society, and was very much appreciated by all the recipient schools. Arising out of these contacts, Rosemary Raughter, Chair of the Society, and committee members Joan Jones and Frank Deignan were delighted to accept an invitation from St Laurence’s School principal, Catherine Coveney, to attend the Proclamation Day ceremonies there on 15 March and to view the very impressive research carried out by the pupils into the Ryan family of Kindlestown House and their connections with 1916. The Society’s website, www.greystonesahs.com, continues to provide upto-date information on our various events, and indeed on publications and events elsewhere which may be of interest to our members. Under Frank Deignan’s direction, it also offers a first port of call to those interested in local or family history in this area, a selection of vintage photographs and the full contents of volumes 1-7 of the Society’s journals.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
SOUTH KILKENNY HISTORICAL SOCIETY The society continued its programme of varied events since the publication of Vol 20, 2015.
LECTURES Lectures delivered in the past twelve months included, Mr Richard Kirwan, formerly of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland giving a lecture on the ‘Mapping of Ireland’. Dr Pat McCarthy gave an overview of the First World War, while Federation committee member, Mr Padraig Laffan, travelled to South Kilkenny on February 25th to deliver a lecture ‘The desperate fight to save the harvest of 1946 and the severe winter of 1947’.
1916 COMMEMORATION The society’s 1916 commemoration programme consisted of a number of lectures, dealing with local connections and the Pearse family before 1916. The highlight of the programme was a two-day conference in May. The theme of the conference was ‘Easter 1916 – the past in the present for the future’. The conference was officially opened by Mr Eamon Mac Lochlainn, great-grand nephew of Padraig and Willie Pearse. The proclamation was read by two local secondary school students, Hannah Holden and Tomas O’Malley and retired primary teacher, Mr Frank Madigan recited some appropriate poetry.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Kerry native, Patrick Mannix delivered the keynote lecture which received much, and well deserved acclaim. The second day consisted of three panel discussions, reflecting the theme of the conference. Session One – Easter 1916 – The case for and against. Panellists, Dr. Eugene Broderick, Mr Eamon O Cuiv, Mr Padraig Yeates and Mr Eoin Walsh. Session Two – 1916 to 2016 – Was it ‘For this that all the blood was shed’. Panellists, Dr Eugene Broderick, Mr Eamonn O Cuiv, Dr. David Begg and Mr Noel Whelan SC. Session Three – 2016 – 2116 – The ideals of 1916 – Their relevance for a new century. Panellists, Dr David Begg, Dr. Sr. Bernadette Mac Mahon, Senator Grace O’Sullivan and Mr Noel Whelan SC. The society also organised a primary schools competition, with the winners being announced at the beginning of the conference. This competition, which was sponsored by St. Dominic Credit Union, proved very successful and the committee of the society were impressed with the quality of the entrants. The society would like to thank St. Dominic Credit Union and Kilkenny County Council for their financial assistance.
TORY HILL On Sunday, July 10th, the society took part in the annual Fraochan Sunday Climb of Tory Hill, which was featured on Irish TV Sky 191. This event predates Christianity and represents the areas ‘Creek Sunday’.
NIGHT OF REMINISCING In December the society continued with its nights of reminiscing, which has proved a very popular and worthwhile event. Mrs Johanna Doyle (nee Mernagh) recalled studying catechism for the Sacrament of Confirmation, fasting to receive Holy Communion and attending three masses in-a-row during Christmas. She also recalled travelling to Waterford three times a year for provisions, the rest being bought locally, where in the small rural parish of Glenmore there were six shops (one in 2016). She also mentioned methods of farming and the work of women in bygone times. Jim Conway dealt with ‘knights of the road’ during the 1940s and ’50s, while Danny Lynch gave an account of travelling from South Kerry, where he was stationed at the time, to the 1959 All-Ireland Hurling Final (and replay).
KNOCKROE The society made its annual ‘pilgrimage’ to Knockroe on December 21st for the Winter Solstice and it has been very active during 2016 to ensure better access to this ancient site and ensuring the preservation of the site for future generations – ‘The Newgrange of the South East’. On January 21st the society lost one of its most loyal members and supporters, Mr Seamus Sutton RIP. Seamus played a key role in setting 126
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 up the society and attended most of the society’s events, even during bouts of serious illness. Seamus’s loyalty to the society is a driving force for its officers and members and gives us the impetus to ‘keep going’. It is because of people like Seamus that a local newspaper recently described the society as ‘One of the most active organisations in Waterford and South Kilkenny.’ It went on to say that ‘the society is well thought of given the amount of numbers that come along to their various events throughout the year. Long may their success continue’.
BRAY CUALANN HISTORICAL SOCIETY BY
The Autumn 2015 programme opened on Thursday September 17th in the new meeting venue of The Kinsale Room, The Royal Hotel, Main Street, Bray, with a presentation from Dave McIIreavy on “The Medieval Bray Project; Phase 1: The Ravenswell - the forgotten 10th century border of the Hiberno Norse kingdom of Dublin”, followed on Thursday October 15th by Dermot Meleady with “John Redmond: The National Leader”, concluding on Thursday November 19th with “A Tribute to Fran O’Toole” by Peter Carroll. In November the death occurred of Kathleen Kinsella, one of the founding members of the Society who also served in a number of offices including that of president of the Society. On Thursday January 21st the Society opened its Spring 2016 programme with its AGM followed by two short presentations – “The Irish National Foresters” by May Harte and “The History of the Royal Hotel, Bray” . In late January the death took place of Jim Lynch, the Society’s long serving Hon Treasurer. On Thursday February 18th Ciran Doyle presented his lecture “The Lifeboats of Wicklow” , followed on Thursday March 10th by Lorraine Bradshaw with “The History of Kilteirnan.” On Wednesday March 23rd Brian White gave a special 7pm presentation “North Wicklow During 1916 – Not a Shot Was Fired” in Bray Library. Neal Dohery presented his lecture “The Statues and Sculptures of Dublin” on Thursday April 21th followed in May by two events - on Thursday May 19th James Scannell presented his lecture “The Picture Postcards of John Hinde” while and on Sunday, May 22 the Society’s one –day coach outing, assisted by the Wicklow County Council 1916 Fund, visited sites associated with the 1916-1921 period in the county. The Society, at the invitation of Bray Library, in association with Sunbeam House, Bray, presented a series of 7 free weekly Friday 127
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 afternoon lectures commencing on Friday, April 22nd with “A General History of Bray” (Brian White); “Transport in County Wicklow” (James Scannell); “Life in Bray in the 1960s” (James Scannell); “Easter Week 1916 in Bray & Co. Wicklow” (Brian White); “Trade and Industry in Bray” (Brian White); “Genealogy Records and Family Research” (Brian White), concluding on June 3rd with “The Structure of Local Government in County Wicklow.” (James Scannell). For Heritage Week 2016, Brian White led an afternoon “Historical Walking Tour of Bray 1916 -1921” on Saturday August 20th, starting at St. Peter’s Cemetery, Little Bray, and concluding at Daly Station, Bray. This tour was repeated on Monday morning, August 22nd. On Saturday August 27th , James Scannell presented his talk “The Week That Was in Bray – August 20th to August 28th 1916” in Bray Library. Dave and Shane Murphy opened the Autumn 2016 programme on Thursday September 15th with their presentation “Bray Town Hall: The Byrne Family Link,1883 to 2014”, followed on Thursday October 20th by Loraine Kennedy Stephens with “Bill Stephens, the Fairview Lion Tamer and his Bray Collections.” The remainder of the Autumn programme in the Royal Hotel, Bray, is Thursday, November 17th: “The Railways of the East Coast of Ireland” – Tom Ferris. In December James Scannell will present two free 11.30 a.m. talks in Bray Library: Friday December 9th: “Christmas 1915 in Bray.” Friday December 16th: “Christmas 1916 in Bray.”
THE OLD DUBLIN SOCIETY BY
The Society commenced its weekly Wednesday night Autumn 2015 programme in Dublin City Library & Archive, 138-144 Pearse Street, Dublin 2, with the new starting time of 6 p.m. on September 23rd with “Dublin Schools prior to 1831” by Rob Goodbody, followed on September 30th by “Anthony Richard Blake (1786 – 1849) – the backstairs viceroy” – Hugh O’Reilly; October 7th: “Dorothy Stopford Price – rebel doctor” – Dr. Anne MacLellan; Wednesday, October 28th: Members Night; November 4th: “Forger, Freemason, Freeman: the story of Samuel Clayton, Dubliner” - Margaret Smith; November 11th: “Chasing the 128
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Smugglers: the customs service in Rush, 1674 – 1765” - Maighréad Ní Mhurchadha. On Wednesday, October 14th James Scannell presented a 1 p.m. lunchtime lecture “The Sinking of the RMS Leinster, October 1918: Legitimate Target or War Crime?” in Dublin Central Library Ilac Centre, Henry Street, Dublin 1, followed on Wednesday, October 21st, by Henry Fairbrother with “Mount Jerome. A Protestant Cemetery”, and on Wednesday, November 18th, by Ken Finlay with “365 Days of Dublin”. James Scannell represented the Society on Saturday November 7th at the 2015 Local History Day hosted by Dublin City Library and Archive with his presentation “The Last Voyage and Sinking of the RMS Lusitania, May, 1915”. On November 25th a short film on Glasnevin Cemetery was screened followed by the AGM at which Ms. Bernardine Ruddy was re-elected President and Hon. Membership Secretary. Elected to the Council posts were Vice-Presidents A. P. Behan, Rev. D. A. Levistone Cooney and Gerry O’Flaherty; Hon. Treasurer: Ms. Sheila Fleming; Hon Correspondence Secretary: Barry Farrell; Hon. Programme Secretary: Bryan McMahon; Hon. PRO – James Scannell; Council Members elected were Henry Fairbrother, John Holohan, Brian Siggins, Laurence Yourell, Ken Finlay. Ms. Mary O’Connell and Ms. Helen Mulvany were later co-opted to the Council. Dr. Séamas Ó Maitiú was re-appointed Hon. Editor of the Dublin Historical Record at the January 2016 meeting of the Council. Papers read to the Society during the Spring 2016 programme in Dublin City Library and Archive included: February 10th: “South Circular Road on the Eve of World War One” – Catherine Scuffil; “Rathborne Tallow Chandlers” – Bernard Neary; March 9th: “Members’ Night”; March 23rd. “Mary (Molly) Adrien, Cumann na mBan Volunteer 1916” – Frank Whearity; April 13th: “1916: Inside the GPO” – Ken Finlay; Wednesday, April 27th: “Lives, Letters, Liberty; Dublin’s General Post Office” – Stephen Ferguson. James Scannell represented the Society at the 12th Local History Society Group Day on Saturday, February 20th, hosted by Dublin City Library and Archive at which he presented his paper “They Remained on the Footplate: A 1945 Donabate Railway Accident.” The Society held a “Remembering 1916” morning of short talks on Saturday, April 2nd, in Dublin City Library and Archive at which members spoke about their family links and connections to the 1916 Rising. The Summer 2016 programme included the following events: May 11th: Visit to the National Library of Ireland, Dublin; May 18th: Visit to The 129
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Deaf Heritage Centre, Cabra; June 11th: Killiney Walking Tour; July 6th: Visit to Bremore Castle, Balbriggan; August 6th: Visit to St. John the Evangelist Church, Coolock. A special Heritage Week lecture was held in Dublin City Library and Archive at 6 p.m. on August 23rd at which Mary O’Connell presented her lecture “From Meath of the pastures: The Story of Smithfield, Dublin, and a family who lived there.” The Autumn 2016 programme opened in Dublin City Library & Archive, on September 23rd with “Fifty Years in the Old Dublin Society” – Brian Siggins; September 28th: “The Dead of the 1916 Rising” – Ray Bateson; October 12th: “Buried in the Archives: Funeral Undertakers in Dublin, 1750-2000” – Dr. Lisa Griffith and Dr. Ciarán Wallace; October 26th: “The British Army Presence in Dublin” – Henry Fairbrother; November 9th: “Five Years of Failure: the Battle of the Somme and the Irish Soldier” – Lar Joye; November 23th: Annual General Meeting, preceded by a short talk “Valentine Jackson, member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the Old Dublin Society” – Bryan MacMahon. The Autumn 2015 and Spring 2016 issues of the Dublin Historical Record were published and distributed to members. Annual membership of the Old Dublin Society is €35 and includes the mailing of the Autumn, Spring, and Summer programmes, and the Autumn and Spring issues of the Dublin Historical Record. Membership inquires, SAE appreciated, to The Membership Secretary, 5 Dollymount Avenue, Clontarf, Dublin D03 Y304.
DUN LAOGHAIRE BOROUGH HISTORICAL SOCIETY BY
The Society opened its 2015 – 2016 programme of monthly lectures on Wednesday, September 16th, 2015, in the Royal Marine Hotel, Dun Laoghaire, with a lecture by Michael O’Flaherty on “Nurses from Dublin in the Great War”. Previously the Society’s 3-day overseas trip to the Peak District and its environs took place from Friday, September 11th to Sunday, September 13th. On Wednesday, October 21st, Rob Goodbody presented his lecture “Dublin 1756 - 1847 Historic Town Atlas”, followed on Wednesday, November 18th, by Myles Reid with “Walking the Luas Line.” On Wednesday, December 9th, the Society held its very popular annual “Collectors/Treasure Night” for which members brought along artefacts 130
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 and spoke about them for 5 minutes while collectors also had the opportunity to talk about the material they were collecting and had. The evening concluded with refreshments and the formal launch of the 25th edition of the Society’s Journal. Hal Sisk opened the 2016 Spring programme on Wednesday, January 20th, with his lecture “Dun Laoghaire’s Greatest World First, the cradle of amateur yacht racing” followed on Wednesday, February 17th, with a lecture by Pat Murphy on “The Asgard,1905-1916” and Wednesday, March 16th, by Colin Scudds with “The Heart of Dun Laoghaire: a Journey through the streets of the town from 1960 to the present.” The AGM of the Society was held on Wednesday, April 20, and concluded with a short talk by James Holohan on “The James Joyce Tower in Sandycove.” A second event that month was the Saturday, April 23rd, half-day outing to St. Enda’s Park, Rathfarnham, and Pearse Museum. Indoor meetings concluded on Wednesday, May 18th, with a presentation by Vincent Ruddy recalling “Dublin 1834, O’Connell’s Repeal Meetings.” On Wednesday, June 1st, Tom Conlon led an evening conducted walk of “Victorian Dun Laoghaire, Visible and Invisible” while the annual oneday outing on Saturday, July 9th, was to Slane Castle and the Irish Military War Museum. For Heritage Week on Wednesday, August 26th, Society member Alice Cullen led an evening “Dalkey Town and Coastal Walk.” From Sunday, September 18th, to Tuesday, September 20th, this year’s annual trip was an Autumn tour of Waterford, Kilkenny and its environs. Tom Conlon opened the Autumn 2016 programme of indoor lectures in the Royal Marine Hotel on Wednesday, September 21st, with “The Courts and Small Dwellings of Kingstown, the other side of the story, how the poor people lived in the 19th century.” On Wednesday, October 19th, Lar Joye recalled “Bombshells and Bullet Holes, stories of 1916”, while on Wednesday, November 16th, James Scannell will cover “Herman Goertz, a German spy in Ireland during the Second World War” followed on Wednesday, December 7th, by the Annual Collectors/ Treasurer Night” and launch of Journal No. 26.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
SILVERMINES HISTORICAL SOCIETY Silvermines Historical Society (SHS) was founded in January 2012, has a membership of approximately seventy people and their mission statement is to collect and preserve local history and folklore that might otherwise be lost. In the past five years they have endeavoured to fulfil this ambition in ways that have been both productive and enjoyable. Winter talks and presentations and summer walks and outings are organised on a regular basis and other activities include interviewing and recording older people in the area, and compiling a collection of photographs from the past.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL The SHS have also produced a very popular local history journal entitled Mining the Past, each year since 2012. Mining the Past 2017 (Volume 5) will be launched on November 4th this year in The Eagles Nest, Dolla, also the venue for the SHS monthly meetings. The book will be on sale locally and further afield in time for the Christmas market. The publication has also established an important link with the Diaspora. Aided by the useful links of a website and facebook, the journal has been sought by the Irish abroad, in particular, those who have genealogical connections to Silvermines and the locality. Given that Silvermines has a rich history of mining in the area, the SHS publication, Mining the Past, could be perceived as a history of mining but this is not so. The Journal has included articles on mining over the years but is a treasure chest of local history, incorporating the ‘history, people and places of Silvermines district’ and often further afield
THE LANDSCAPE Silvermines is one of many hidden gems in rural Ireland and has a wealth of scenery and historical sites. Situated just a few kilometres from Nenagh (Aonach Urmhumhan), and close to the main road artery from Dublin to Limerick and the south, the area has a choice of marvellous walking routes. There is a long history of mining in the Silvermines area incorporating mine sites at Shallee, Magcobar, Mogul of Ireland lead & zinc mines, and old workings in Silvermines village. In September 2013, the SHS organised a commemoration event and erected a plaque to the memory of five miners who had lost their lives in mining accidents in Mogul of Irl Ltd. Silvermines is a large parish with two churches and three graveyards. Our Lady of Lourdes Church in the village of Silvermines opened in 1961 and Our Lady of the Wayside Church in Ballinaclough, built in 132
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 1830, was extensively renovated in 1985. This year members of the SHS undertook the task of recording all the headstone inscriptions in the three graveyards in the parish, and plan to finish the project by digitising the inscription Silvermines Historical Society are actively enjoying what they do, they are keenly aware of the important ‘sense of place’ in local history and hope to pass on these values to future generations. Contact: www.silvermineshistoricalsociety.com Email: silvermineshistoricalsociety @gmail.com
SOUTH WESTMEATH IN 1916 — STASIS, REBELLION AND TRANSITION BY
In the years prior to the Easter Rising, the predominant political ideology in south Westmeath was constitutional nationalism. The most representative party was John Redmond’s Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), represented in South Westmeath by Sir Walter Nugent, MP. The focus of most people’s political energies was the search for a third Irish Home Rule Bill, with the local branches and divisions of the United Irish League and Ancient Order of Hibernians organising grass roots support for the measure in both Athlone, Moate and neighbouring rural regions, The drive for Home Rule was greatly boosted by the IPP’s political strength from 1910 onwards when the party held the balance of power at Westminster, with the presentation of the Bill itself in April 1912. Exceptional support came from all areas in south Westmeath from 1912-14 as the Bill went through the parliamentary process, with a February 1914 meeting in Moate which saw 10,000 people turn out, providing good evidence of Home Rule’s popularity in the region. However, the commencement of the Great War in August 1914 was to begin a process of political realignment in Ireland and south Westmeath. Originally forecast to last just a few months, the war’s prolongation was to allow for advanced nationalists, those opposed to war participation and in support of seeking an Irish Republic, to plan an offensive for Easter 1916, which, when it was carried off was to change the face of Irish politics.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 The Rising, though a military failure, was a propaganda coup which saw massive sympathy for the executed leaders and their political ideals, sympathy which permeated south Westmeath. The harsh reaction of the British authorities in executing the men was complemented by the marauding of the Sherwood Foresters in the south Westmeath region, as they sought to root out rebels, arresting dozens of locals in the process. These persecutions, amongst others, turned people against the British government and also started a process whereby Irish nationalists began to move away from the IPP. Redmond’s party did little, it appeared, to represent the feelings and views of the their constituents in view of the British response to the rebellion, while local politicians like Walter Nugent also appeared unable or unwilling to provide the muscular response that their constituents’ desired. By February 1917 the move away from the IPP began to be evinced in earnest as south Westmeath support for Count Plunkett in the North Roscommon by-election assisted him in dislodging the IPP in that constituency. Followed quickly by a victory for Sinn Fein in south Longford in May, it started to appear that south Westmeath was slowly being surrounded by advanced nationalist constituencies. However, as it was to become clear in the General Election of 1918, the new constituency of Westmeath was to row in with the new movement in emphatic fashion, jettisoning the local IPP MPs and setting a course for Dail Eireann in January 1919.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
FEDERATION AGM LIMERICK - MAY 13TH – 15TH, 2016 This year’s AGM, held in Limerick, and hosted by the Thomond Archaeological & Historical Society was a great success. Representatives from fourteen counties and delegates from more than twenty five local societies met in conference in the “City of the Treaty Stone”. The weekend programme was designed to allow for the one day conference or three days including the conference, walks, talks and an opportunity to meet and socialise with old friends and meet new ones. We were fortunate to be blessed with three days of fine weather which only added to the enjoyment and in particular the city walks. We all gathered for dinner on the Friday night and after a welcome by the President of the Thomond Society, Randel Hodkinson, we all enjoyed a lovely meal in the Absolute Hotel, which was to be our home for the weekend. Local historian and member of the Thomond Society, Liam Irwin, presented a fascinating illustrated talk on the history of Limerick after dinner. He outlined the pivotal role the city played in the history of Ireland from its Viking beginnings in the tenth century and through its mediaeval and Georgian periods to the building of Newtown Pery in the 18th century. On Saturday the AGM was officially opened by the Deputy Mayor of Limerick, Gerald Mitchell. The Mayor spoke highly of the important work done by the Federations in promoting and keeping alive local history in communities all over the island. The Deputy Mayor’s interest in history was such that he actually stayed for the duration of the AGM. The business of the AGM was conducted efficiently and Dick Ryan stepped down after his three years tenure as Chairman. Dick was thanked for his great work as Chairman and presented with a gift on behalf of all his colleagues by the Federation President, Canon Sean O’Doherty. Michael Gaynor, Old Dundalk Society, was elected as the new Chairman. The remaining committee were re-elected for another year. After AOB there was a lively session with the “Society Spake” giving all societies present the opportunity to share their activities with the meeting. During the meeting the Deputy Mayor was presented with copies of the Federation Journal by Dick Ryan, the Thomond Journal by Randel Hodkinson and a copy of her book “Tales from County Fermanagh”, by the author, Doreen Mc Bride from the Ulster Federation. After lunch local historian and archaeologist, John Elliott, took the group on a guided tour of the City with a memorable walk and talk around the medieval walls and how they showed the development of the city. Included were the Limerick castle area, Dominican Friary, Englishtown, Irishtown, the Citadel and St. John’s Gate. Again, it was 135
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 made all the more enjoyable in the wonderful afternoon sunshine. A busy day concluded with dinner in the hotel that night. A sunny Sunday morning saw the happy band on the road again with a conducted tour of Georgian Limerick by Liam Irwin. Again, Liam’s tour was up to the excellent standard already set by his illustrated talk on the Friday night. The walk included a wealth of buildings, streetscapes, churches, public buildings and monuments in the Crescent and Pery Square area. It was so relaxing to dally in Pery Square in the sunshine, take in the beautiful architecture and view the lovely People’s Park. Another memorable day concluded with a walk through the Market with its many interesting and varied stalls. The Federation would like to thank the Thomond Archaeological & Historical Society, and in particular their members, Mary Kenehan, Liam Irwin and Randel Hodkinson for all their personal time and effort spent in organising everything and making it such a successful weekend.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
CHAIRMAN’S STATEMENT 2016 Deputy Mayor, ladies and gentlemen. You are all very welcome to this Annual General Meeting of the Federation of Local History Societies. I would in particular like to welcome the representatives of our sister organisation, the Federation for Ulster Local Studies, who have come from Banbridge, West Belfast, Carrickfergus and Benburb to be with us here today. I am very pleased that the Thomond Archaeological and Historical Society invited us to have this year’s AGM in my native city of Limerick. It was here that my interest in history was first stimulated by my parents and especially by my maternal grandmother who had had the experience of being evicted as a young child and of having to live in a stable for a period. Two of her prized possessions were two bullet cases picked up from the ruins of 1916 which she presented to me when she realised that I had an interest in history. I mention my grandmother just to show that we can all inculcate an interest in history in the next generation if we make the effort. We hear a lot about social housing nowadays and the difficulty of finding suitable sites that won’t attract objections at the planning stage. There were similar problems in the 1930s, so Limerick Corporation found the ideal site – the courtyard of King John’s Castle! The tops of the houses could be seen above the parapets of the castle and I remember, as a schoolboy, being upset by this ongoing desecration (as I saw it) of a historic site. Fortunately in more recent years the houses were removed and the castle has been restored to the condition you see today. I think it is a sign of our progress as a nation and of the growing interest in history that even in the current dire need of social housing nobody would think of the courtyard of a medieval castle as a suitable site. This growing interest in history has been given impetus by the current Decade of Centenaries that started three years ago and also by the process of putting archives on line, such as the Census Returns, the Bureau of Military History Records, the Military Pensions Records and more recently the 1916 Court Martial files. This is reflected also in the increasing membership of the Federation in recent years which is now over 160. Our last AGM was held in Kinsale to coincide with the commemoration of the sinking of the Lusitania. Since then we have had a number of events, starting with the joint visit to North Down/South Antrim in July where we visited the Somme Heritage Centre, Mount Stewart and Carrickfergus. 137
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 In October, three of our committee members manned a stand at the Cork Celebrates the Past exhibition. On the following day, the Federation organised a very interesting seminar in Dublin on the recording of oral history and this was followed shortly afterwards by the highlight of the year, the official launch of the Hidden Gems and Forgotten People project by the President, Michael D. O’Higgins. This was very well attended by members of both federations, who enjoyed the event and the subsequent interaction with the President and his wife. Local History Day in Dublin on 20th February featured a paper by Larry Breen on the Hidden Gems and Forgotten People project and he also organised a very interesting and well-planned visit to the English Midlands in April which was attended by fifty-one people from both federations. I have now completed three years as chairman and I feel it is the right time to step down and allow somebody else to make their contribution. I have enjoyed my time as chairman, learned a lot of history and made many new friendships – north and south of the border. I have been fortunate in having an excellent committee for the three years and I would like to thank them for their contributions, individually and collectively during that period. I would like to particularly thank our Secretary, Betty Quinn, our Treasurer, Mairead Byrne and of course the main mover, both behind the scenes and front of stage, Larry Breen. I would also like to thank our hosts, the Thomond Archaeological and Historical Society for their hospitality and help in organising this event. Thank you all and enjoy the rest of the weekend in this most historic city.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
AGM OF THE FEDERATION LOCAL HISTORY SOCIETIES
DATE: 14TH MAY 2016 VENUE: THE ABSOLUTE HOTEL, LIMERICK CITY. BETTY QUINN HON. SECRETARY. The AGM was hosted by the Thomond Archaeological and Historical Society. The Deputy Mayor of Limerick, Gerald Mitchell opened proceedings by welcoming delegates to the city. He spoke of the rich heritage of the city of Limerick, still evident in some of its wonderful Georgian streetscapes and its profusion of Church Architecture. He mentioned its once great industrial era when Ranks Flour Mills were to the fore, he was also very proud of the recent social re-development that is happening in the city. He commended the Federation for the important work they are doing in promoting Local History. Chairman, Dick Ryan thanked the Mayor and presented him with a copy of the Federation Journal. Doreen McBride on behalf of the Federation for Ulster Local Studies presented him with a copy of her latest book, Tales from Co. Fermanagh. Randal Hodkinson, president of the Thomond Society also presented him with a copy of the Thomond journal.
MINUTES: Minutes of the 2014 AGM read by the Hon. Secretary Betty Quinn were adopted on the proposal of Larry Breen and seconded by Michael Gaynor. CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS: Delivered by Dick Ryan (copy appended) Dick stepped down following his three years tenure as chairman. Michael Gaynor, Old Dundalk Society was elected as the new chairman on the proposal of Eugene Jordan, seconded by Frank Taaffe. Dick was thanked for his excellent work as chairman and was presented with a best wishes card and book on behalf of his colleagues by the President Fr. Sean O’Doherty. Fr. Sean was also congratulated on his appointment to Archdeacon. John Hulme on behalf of the FULS paid tribute to Dick and spoke of his friendship with the Federation and how much they have achieved in their joint meetings. Dick was elected as a committee member on the proposal of Larry Breen, seconded by Jim Dockery
TREASURER’S REPORT: Delivered by Mairead Byrne (copy appended) Secretaries Report: Delivered by Betty Quinn (copy appended) Election of Officers: It was agreed by consensus to return the current officers and committee members. 139
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
AOB: Jim Dockery proposed raising the membership fee from the current rates: Individual, €5; 26-50 members, €25; 50 + members, €40 The proposal is: Individual, €10; less than 40, €25 and 40+, €50. The proposal was seconded for adoption by Frank Taaffe.
JOURNAL: Padraig Laffan paid special tribute to JJ Woods on the wonderful work he does on the production of the journal. Larry Breen urged societies to take a pack of 12 journals to sell at their respective events and forward revenue on completion of sales. HIDDEN GEMS AND FORGOTTEN PEOPLE: Larry again urged societies to research and promote lesser known places and people in their location for inclusion on the website - www.hidden-gems.eu The Federation has a series of story boards societies can borrow and display at their events to promote the project. SOCIETY SPAKE chaired by Larry Breen: MARIE GUILLOT, CLOYNE: Their society has expanded their network to include more activities with children. MARTINA GRIFFIN, MOATE, mentioned their annual outing to Glasnevin Cemetery and the Botanic Gardens. They held six lectures this year mostly concentrating on WW1. Their Museum has re-opened following problems with insurance. EUGENE JORDAN, GALWAY, spoke of their society being founded in 1900 and they have produced their 68th journal. This year they had several talks on 1916, Galway had the largest mobilisation outside Dublin, the main concentration being in Athenry. Their trip this year is to Innishmurray Island. MICHAEL GAYNOR, OLD DUNDALK: Their society had a very busy year with emphasis on 1916 commemorations. They have 200 members and hold lectures in Winter, This year their visit is to Dublin. The age profile of their committee is proving problematic, Michael urged members to be aware of succession planning, this year they are without a Treasurer due to illness. FRANK TAAFFE, ATHY: Their society was founded in 1983. They manage the Heritage Centre Museum which received full accreditation on the Heritage Council Standards Programme. The Museum has the only permanent exhibition dedicated to Shackleton. They recently purchased the ships cabin where Shackleton died. MAIREAD BYRNE, RATHCOFFEY, spoke of the benefits of being involved in a local history society, meeting like minded people. She particularly 140
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 enjoys the connection with the FULS and being exposed to the history of Ulster through the joint trips. She mentioned an old corn mill in Celbridge dating from 1210 now used as a community centre. Mairead got hold of some documents relating to the building and is now seeking help from NUI Maynooth with a view to digitising same. JOHN HULME, CARRICKFERGUS, spoke of their planned launch of HG & FP in Belfast Central Library in September. The exhibition will subsequently move through the province. He mentioned how gratifying it is to have the project nationwide. He enjoys very much the friendships made through the joint activities DICK RYAN, RATHMICHAEL: Their society is based in Shankhill with 75 members. Their week-end away this year is to Kinsale. They have three other outings during the summer. They didn’t produce any journal this year as they are lacking an editor. The age profile of their members is an issue. PADRAIG LAFFAN, FOXROCK: Padraig commended the people who keep the HG & FP going. His society like many others are suffering from the age profile. They held a forum with neighbouring societies which was widely circulated and proved very successful. One of the objectives was to try and increase committee members so that older people can be replaced. He advised pitching for people outside the historical remit. He also encouraged holding short talks by local people, thus giving them more ‘buy-in’, have more visuals in presentation and not so much text, speakers can bring their material and the society will collate it. KAY LONERGAN, CLONTARF: Their focus this year is on 1916. They had a big event over a week-end where the 1916 Relations Association mounted an exhibition in the Town Hall in Clontarf. They also had a Mass where the historian Declan Kiberd gave an oration. BRIDIE BRADLEY, WEST BELFAST: They have 50 members and are established for 42 years, they visit other societies. Their annual day away is to Arbour Hill. BERNADETTE DOYLE, CO.KILDARE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY: They have 150 members but not all are active. They meet five times a year in the Local Library. Their excursion this year is to Lough Gur and The Burren. BETTY QUINN, OLD DROGHEDA: Founded in 1964 with 250 members, lectures in Autumn and Spring, outings in Summer. Their society is finding difficulty in filling outings. They manage Drogheda Museum, Millmount, which is due in September for Maintenance of Accreditation on The Heritage Council’s Museums Standards Programme for Ireland. The Museum has a good relationship with local schools, especially with the teachers in conjunction with an inter-school local history quiz, which is very popular and competitive. Last year a Halloween event for 141
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Primary Schools proved very popular. Summer evening town walks were also well attended, Halloween Ghost Walk is always booked out. DOREEN MCBRIDE, BANBRIDGE: They hold 8 lectures annually and 2 outings, one of which is at Christmas. Members of their society are always at hand to welcome visitors to Northern Ireland. They are trying to encourage local schools to develop a programme on Local History. AGNES HICKEY, BLARNEY: Their society is established for 31 years with 50 members. They hold 12 lectures annually and also go on field trips. They have produced 14 journals, including a photo journal. They have a new website with 1700 hits already. They also have video recordings, they are hoping to get a room in Blarney from the Council to have a pop-up exhibition. They are working with the GAA and soccer clubs to develop a map to encourage visitors to come to the village as well as visiting Blarney Castle. They are conducting a walking tour of the village for Heritage Week. AIDAN CLARKE, WESTPORT: Their society manages Clew Bay Heritage Centre which includes a genealogy service. They also have a community garden at the back of the centre. They cater for school tours and are also involved in commemorating 1916 over a week-end where President Higgins will unveil a plaque to the 31 men arrested in the area. Mayo Co. Council will open an exhibition on Major John McBride. KIERAN GROEGER, YOUGHAL: Kieran spoke of the RIA’s recent publication Irish Historic Towns Atlas which will be the focus of their two day conference in September. Their 1916 commemorations are also in September. 1000 men who enlisted from the area gave their nearest town as Youghal. One of their projects is to clean the Quaker Graveyard. JIM DOCKERY, ROSCOMMON: They hold 8 lectures annually. This year their excursion is to Wexford. During Heritage Week they arrange tours to lesser known areas of the county. All their journals are digitised and are in the Local Library. They are holding a conference on 1916, the contents of which will be produced in their journal. Their oral history is ongoing. EAMON LEONARD, OLD ATHLONE: They hold 8 lectures annually. This year they are holding 2 one day conferences, one on the civil war and one on 1916. They try to have some local content in their lecture series. CLARE O’HALLORAN, CORK: Their society is 125 years old. They publish an annual journal which is free to members. Their digitised journals are on line. They hold 6 lectures annually and 4 outings and a Christmas Lunch. This year’s week-end away is to Kilkenny. Co. Cork has 70 history societies, if they all pooled their resources they may be able to avail of grants to assist with various heritage projects. 142
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 ANN CUSACK, WATERFORD: Their society was founded in the mid fifties. They have 200 members. They hold Winter lectures and Summer outings, this year they are on their 40th edition of their journal Decies. On Heritage Week they held talks with a visual display on aspects of everyday life in the city in 1916. They were involved in the 1848 Tricolour Celebrations, commemorating the first raising of the Irish National flag by Thomas Francis Meagher in Waterford city BERNADINE RUDDY, OLD DUBLIN SOCIETY: Founded in 1934, they hold lectures in Spring and Autumn and outings in Summer. For their 1916 commemorations they held a series of short talks by members on their links to the rising. They produce two issues annually of their journal, Dublin Historical Record. Their society also suffers from the age profile with difficulty in replacing older members, MARY KENEHAN, THOMAND: They hold 10 lectures annually and this year several are on aspects of 1916. Their annual outing this year is to Holland and Belgium. They produce an annual journal. They also keep a watching brief on planning issues that may affect Limerick city. They too are affected by the age profile. Recently they developed a new website. This concluded the business of the meeting.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
NORTH/SOUTH Joint North/South activities reached an all time high in 2016 with a series of interesting and varied events some of which were unique in their own right. The joint committee was kept very busy organising these activities and met as usual twice in Dublin and twice in Belfast during the year.
Our UK trip took us to the “The Heart of England” where we stayed in Royal Leamington Spa enjoying some fine weather to add to the enjoyment. We made visits to Coventry Cathedral, Shugborough House, Stratford–upon-Avon, Blenheim Palace, Oxford and many other places of interest. Our AGM held in Limerick City was attended by several delegates from the Ulster Federation who joined us in a wonderful weekend in the “City of the Treaty Stone”. We welcomed the FULS group to Dublin in this year’s exchange visit and joined forces to visit Kilmainham Gaol and Glasnevin Cemetery. We were all privileged to be part of a special memorial ceremony at Glasnevin Cemetery to four soldiers from Northern Ireland who had been awarded the VC for bravery in the Great War. We in the southern Federation were delighted to attend the FULS launch of their Hidden Gems & Forgotten People exhibition which took place in 144
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Belfast Central Library. The exhibition was opened by Tom Hartley who gave a fascinating talk on the graveyards of Belfast and we all shared some light refreshments afterwards. However the highlight of the year must have been our joint visit to the Battlefields of Europe. Together we travelled to West Flanders, visiting, Ypres, Time Cot Cemetery, Sanctuary Hill and Messines Island of Ireland Peace Park. Visits to the European Parliament in Brussels and the beautiful City of Bruges were followed by an emotive visit to the Somme and finally Waterloo. We encountered a very moving personal story with regard to Jimmy Conway, one of our fellow travellers, and which is documented elsewhere in the journal. Last but not least we shared a unique social occasion when a group representing both Federations met in Belfast’s Opera House to meet and talk with Dame Mary Peters, former Olympic Pentathlon Champion. We look forward to continuing to share our common interest in local history.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Federations Heart of England 10th – 14th April, 2016 As in previous years, our choice of the “Heart of England” for our visit was an inspired one. The trip was fully booked with fifty-one local historians from all over the island meeting the Dublin ferry for the start of the journey. Unfortunately we were without our good friends John and Jenifer Hulme who were unable to travel but we had them in our thoughts during our visit. There were thirteen counties represented including Dublin, Kildare, Antrim, Down, Tyrone, Donegal, Roscommon, Cork, Galway, Offaly, Kilkenny, Laois and Tipperary. Societies represented were Naas, Clane, Newbridge, Castlecomer, Carrickfergus, Rathmichael, Roscommon, Clontarf, Athy, Rathcoffey, West Belfast, Durrow, Tipperary, Dungannon, Banbridge, Raheny, Knocklyon, West Tyrone, Mount Merrion, Galway, BallsbridgeSandymount and Donnybrook, and Foxrock.
Sunday We left Dublin Port on a fine morning and had a very smooth crossing, arriving safe and sound on Welsh soil. We travelled through north Wales and made a stop at Chester. Arrived OK in Leamington Spa, had a lovely dinner and were all in bed early ready with anticipation for the start of our adventures in the Heart of England.
MONDAY After breakfast in the Angel Hotel, we met up with our guide, Ian Jelf, and what a find he turned out to be. Suitably fed and watered we headed north for Coventry with Ian taking the scenic route and managing to give us a “sneak” look at the ruins of Kenilworth Castle. Our first stop was the Cathedrals in Coventry. What a treat this was. It was something special to be able to compare and contrast the 14th Century Gothic St. Michaels, now in ruins, with the new St. Michaels built after the former was destroyed by German bombing during WWII. The old Cathedral ruins remain hallowed ground with only the tower, spire, outer walls and the effigy/tomb of the first Bishop surviving. The new cathedral, consecrated in 1962, was special with many unique and impressive features including Graham Sutherland’s huge tapestry; the “Mater Dolorosa” sculpture by John Bridgeman; the baptistry windows by John Piper; the stained glass windows of the Nave and much more. We learned the story of the charred cross and the “cross of 146
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 nails”, the latter becoming a symbol of peace and reconciliation all over the world. It was then on the road again travelling further north to Staffordshire and Shugborough Hall and Estate. The Estate and House were formally owned by the Bishops of Litchfield and later by an ancestor of the Earls of Litchfield, William Anson. Today it is “the complete working historic estate” boasting among many other things the only log-fired brewery in England. We enjoyed a memorable day visiting the staterooms, the private apartments and also the gardens and had a lovely lunch in the Shugborough Hall tea rooms. Our journey back was made all the more interesting by Ian’s excellent commentary along the way. Ian took us through Litchfield telling us all about the town and we managed to catch a glimpse of Litchfield Cathedral with its famous spires. That evening we were privileged to be entertained by local historian, Margaret Rushton, from the Leamington Historical Society who talked about Leamington and what was happening on the local history scene.
TUESDAY After breakfast it was off to Shakesphere’s country and the beautiful Stratford-upon-Avon. Ian took us as usual on the scenic route through the lovely Warwickshire countryside and through many of the picturesque villages on route. Anne Hathaway’s Cottage awaited us and we were not disappointed. Set in its own beautiful gardens it presented a wonderful picture in the morning sunshine. There followed a fascinating tour of the house which contained much of the original furniture and captured the atmosphere of that period in the life of the family. We took a coach tour of the village seeing all the houses associated with the bard and made a visit to the Holy Trinity Church to see the last resting place of William Shakespeare. After lunch we had some free time to stroll around the village and taste the atmosphere. We then bade farewell to Stratford and travelled on to Warwick Castle, guided by Ian. This medieval castle developed from the original one built by William the Conqueror in 1068 proved to be something special. One could not but be impressed by the whole scene including the Great Hall with its impressive pristine pieces of equestrian armour and the unique huge cauldron known as Guy’s “Porridge Pot”. The interior contained spectacular rooms including the State Rooms, the State Dining Room, the Red Drawing Room, the Green Drawing Room, the Cedar Drawing Room, the Queen Anne Bedroom, the Blue Boudoir and the Chapel. Outside and within the castle walls the central lawn is surrounded by the ramparts and presents a stunning view of the building. It was with some degree of sadness that we left Warwick to make our way back to Leamington. We did have time to stop and Ian took us on 147
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 a walking tour of Leamington. A Spa town, with the Royal Pump Rooms opening in 1814, it afforded us a most pleasant walk. It was granted the “Royal” prefix in 1838 by Queen Victoria whose statue stands proudly in the centre of the town. We had a leisurely walk through Jephson Gardens, seeing notable attractions including Lansdowne Crescent, the Town Hall, the “Elephant walk” and many of the town’s range of Georgian and early Victorian architecture.
WEDNESDAY The third day of our adventures took us south to the magnificent Blenheim Palace, principal residence of the Dukes of Marlborough. Built in the short lived English Baroque style between 1705-1722 it was a magnificent sight to see. Blenheim was the birthplace of the 1st Duke’s famous descendant, Winston Churchill and we were able to follow his life and times in viewing the permanent exhibition in the suite of rooms in which he was born. Steeped in history it presented a host of impressive and decorative rooms including the Chapel, the Library, the Salon and many others. The architecture was just breathtaking with a stunning building surrounded by some lovely gardens. We had a special treat before leaving Blenheim when we had our lunch in the Spencer-Churchill room with a panoramic view of the palace grounds. The university city of Oxford was to be our last port of call. We toured the famous Christ Church College, the biggest of the many colleges in the university, and walked through its impressive courtyards and grounds. The Cathedral was most impressive with many fine stained glass windows, beautiful ceiling and intricate wood carvings. Our guide, Ian, then took us on a linear walk past many of the beautiful and architecturally impressive buildings which go to make up this wonderful city. Included were the Great Quadrangle of Christ Church College, the Radcliff Camera, University College and the Bridge of Sighs. There were too many to mention all. It was a memorable day filled with history, beautiful gardens, and impressive buildings.
THURSDAY Sadly after an early breakfast we bid farewell to the Angel Hotel, which had proved to be an excellent home for us with great facilities and service, and headed for Holyhead and our ferry back to the Emerald Isle. This was another memorable visit to a beautiful and unique part of England’s heartland, one which we will all remember for the fond memories of the people and places we encountered on the way. 148
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
FEDERATION OF LOCAL HISTORY SOCIETIES AND FEDERATION FOR ULSTER LOCAL STUDIES VISIT BATTLEFIELDS OF EUROPE SEPTEMBER 26 – 30, 2016 In what was a return visit after our trip in 2010 both federations joined together to share another trip to the battlefields of Europe and it was indeed a memorable journey. There was representation from fourteen counties namely, Kildare, Kilkenny, Roscommon, Dublin, Galway, Louth, Cork, Tipperary, Wicklow, Down, Tyrone, Antrim, Armagh, Derry/Londonderry and representatives from twenty eight different historical/archaeological societies.
MONDAY The intrepid group of travellers left Dublin airport early in the morning and arrived safe and sound in Leuven at about 11.00 a.m. A most welcome early lunch awaited the group at the Irish College of St. Anthony in Leuven, a Franciscan College, founded by Florence Conry in 1607 and now the Leuven Institute for Ireland in Europe. Lunch was followed with an absorbing talk given by the Director of the Leuven Institute, Malachy Vallely. Malachy presented the history and development of the Irish Colleges in Europe since the 17th century, the establishment of Leuven as an educational link between Ireland and the rest of Europe and the important work it continues to do today. Breaking into two groups we enjoyed a guided walking tour of the centre of the beautiful city of Leuven with its many historical highlights. Leuven is a university town, established in 1425, which, at the time, created a resurgence in the town after the demise of the flourishing cloth trade which had existed there. The town was alive with the exuberance of the huge student population who had just returned for the new college year. We traversed along many cobbled streets, viewed some magnificent 17th century houses, the famous 13th century “Beguinage”, the spectacular finely sculptured Town Hall, as well as many baroque churches and buildings. A buffet dinner at the Institute brought to an end a very busy day.
TUESDAY On Tuesday our destination was to West Flanders to see the battlefields around the town of Ypres. This ancient town was the scene of some of the bloodiest fighting in Belgium. To see the town buildings reconstructed out of the ashes it is difficult to imagine that it was actually razed to the 149
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 ground during the war. A visit to the “In Flanders Field Museum” was a poignant reminder to all of us of the horror and devastation wrought by this awful war. We were then met by our guide for the day, Pol. Our first stop was at the “Island of Ireland Peace Park” near Messines which is dominated by the impressive Irish round tower, built of stone with pieces from all over the island. It is a fitting memorial to all the soldiers of Ireland, north and south, and of all political and religious persuasions who died, were wounded, or missing. Irishmen and women served during the war with the armies of Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the USA. We then called to see Hill 62 and the memorial dedicated to the Canadian forces who had held out here against a fierce German onslaught. It was also the scene of some horrific gas bomb attacks. It was fascinating to then visit the last remaining authentic trenches of WWI at Sanctuary Wood. Along with the trenches were examples of all sorts of war materials, shells, grenades, weapons etc., that had been used in battle. Nearby was the grave of Francis Ledwidge who was killed while serving with the Royal Irish Fusiliers at the battle of Boesinghe on July 31st, 1917. Our last port of call was Tyne Cot cemetery, the largest of WWI, containing over 11,000 graves most of which are unidentified. It is difficult to express ones feelings on seeing the seemingly endless rows of white head stones stretch out before one, overlooked by the unique Cross of Sacrifice erected over a German bunker taken by the allies in 1917. Something did happen which helped lift some of the gloom when group member Peter O’Reilly from Blessington, Co. Wicklow, found the record of his grandfather who had fought, died and was buried in the Cemetery. Peter was thrilled to also discover details about the family hitherto unknown. After dinner in Ypres we were privileged to attend the Last Post and Reveille ceremony at the Menin Gate. This gate is dedicated to all the missing British and Commonwealth soldiers and contains the names of 54,395 soldiers. It was a very special occasion for the both federations as we laid a wreath during the ceremony in memory of those killed. The wreath was laid jointly by Mairead Byrne, Rathcoffey, Co. Kildare and Jimmy Conway, Lurgan, Co. Armagh, on behalf of both federations. It was an emotional moment bringing both federations closer together in jointly remembering all Irish soldiers killed in the fields of Flanders.
WEDNESDAY The European Parliament beckoned on Wednesday morning and we were met on arrival by MEP and Vice President of the European Parliament, 150
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Mairead McGuinness who, together with MEP Jim Nicholson, had sponsored our visit. After a very warm welcome and some photos, Mairead again welcomed the group before we were treated to a very interesting presentation on the history and work of the European Parliament. We then had time to enjoy a cup of tea/coffee outside the parliament in the midday sunshine before having lunch in the Parliament canteen. On a lovely sunny afternoon we travelled to the beautiful city of Bruges. Some people joined our guided tour and others just went fancy free in the city. We enjoyed another lovely personal story as group members George and Doreen Mc Bride were celebrating fifty seven years of marriage together and what made it so special was they had spent their honeymoon in Bruges all those years before. It was a privilege to share that special occasion with them. Bruges is the most perfectly preserved medieval city in Belgium boasting a wealth of magnificent architecture including the Halle, the Belfry, the Basilica of the Holy Blood, the Beguinage, the Market and the Town Hall. We all enjoyed a most relaxing afternoon in this lovely city.
THURSDAY All were up bright and early in preparation for the long journey into France to the valley of the Somme, scene of the largest battle of the first World War on the Western Front. Our tour was to the Thiepval area and we first stopped at the Ulster Memorial Tower which stands on what was the German frontline during the Battle of the Somme. Standing seventy feet high it is a lasting tribute to the men of Ulster who gave their lives during the battle. It was here that we met Julia, our guide for the day, who proved to be a “Gem” and showed great knowledge in particular of the Irish regiments involved in the battles. We had the privilege to share another personal story with a member of our group. Jimmy Conway from Lurgan, Co. Armagh, told the story about his four grand uncles, the McAlinden brothers from Derrytagh North near Lurgan who all had fought in the war. One of the brothers, James McAlinden, died of wounds suffered and was awarded the Russian Cross of St. George for his bravery. He was buried in a cemetery in the Somme and Jimmy had come prepared to sprinkle soil from home and lay crosses on the grave if we could manage to get there. Jimmy made a valiant personal attempt to accomplish this task but just failed to make it. However his passion, enthusiasm and determination were an inspiration and encouraged us all to share the story with him in a special way. Jimmy was eventually rewarded and overjoyed to hear his poem about the Lurgan Brigade read out by our guide Julia on the steps of the impressive Thiepval memorial much to everyone’s delight. 151
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 After the Ulster Tower we proceeded to the Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial Park which included the Destination Stone, the cemetery, trenches and the Caribou Monument — all dedicated to the Royal Newfoundland Regiment and also to other armies who lost men in the battle, namely the French, the British and the Germans. There were bloody battles at Guillemont and nearby at Ginchy where much Irish blood was shed involving the 16th Irish Division and 1,200 men died. A member of our group, Frank Taaffe, from Athy Co. Kildare recounted the story of how Athy man Lieutenant John Vincent Holland commanded the soldiers who broke through the defences in what was regarded as the strongest fortified villages held by the Germans and was awarded the Victoria Cross for his bravery. We visited the Guillemont Road Cemetery and the little parish church in Guillemont outside which stands a Celtic Cross and inside on the wall are plaques dedicated to Irish soldiers killed in the battle. Our last call was to the centre d’Acceuil de Thiepval with its imposing monument dominating the sky. That evening we enjoyed a superb meal in the Ulysses restaurant at the Leuven College after which both chairmen, Michael Gaynor, FLHS, and Johnny Dooher, FULS, recalled the wonderful week we all had together and thanked all concerned. There was a special welcome for four guests from the Leuven Archives Group who were friends of FULS member Bridgeen Rutherford and had worked with her on an exchange project. A special presentation was made on behalf of the group to George and Doreen McBride of a pair of Bruges cushion covers on the occasion of their fifty-seventh anniversary. A warm thank you was extended to the Leuven Institute for looking after us so well during our stay and in particular Michael Rafferty for all the work he did in organising the trip.
FRIDAY It was with a certain degree of sadness that we left the Leuven Institute for the airport after such a memorable visit but we had one more stop on our journey and that was to Waterloo, site of a battle which ended twenty years of bloody conflict in Europe. We spent some time in the very impressive interactive museum and it was somewhat awe inspiring to see the spectacular Lion’s Mound. This was a remarkable journey through many facets of European history never to be forgotten but most of all it was a journey of friendship, sharing, comradeship, fun and personal stories which we shared and which we will always remember. 152
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
SPECIAL RESERVE REGIMENTS RAISED IN IRELAND
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
DIARY – 2017
UK VISIT – NORTH WALES, SUNDAY 30TH APRIL
THURSDAY 4TH MAY 2017
We will be based in Caernarfon staying at the Celtic Royal Hotel & Leisure Centre. The package will include coach for five days, four nights B&B with four evening meals and return ferry Dublin to Holyhead. The visit will include scenic drives along the Anglesey coast, North coast, a trip on the Fiestinig railway, a visit to the slate mines and museum, visit the castles of Caernarfon and Conwy, the stately house Plas Newydd, the unique village of Portmeirion, a half day in beautiful Chester and much more. FEDERATION AGM – GALWAY CITY, FRIDAY 26TH MAY TO SUNDAY 28TH MAY 2017 The 2017 Federation AGM will be held in Galway City, “The City of the Tribes”. The Galway Archaeological & Historical Society has kindly offered to host the event and we look forward to a warm welcome from our hosts and some very interesting walks and talks over the weekend in this beautiful and ancient city. EXCHANGE VISIT - FEDERATION OF LOCAL HISTORY SOCIETIES & FEDERATION FOR ULSTER LOCAL STUDIES. This year the Federation of Local History Societies will travel north to meet with our colleagues in the Ulster Federation for a joint weekend event. Dates are yet to be decided but it will most likely be in July/ August 2017.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Society Members of the Federation If there are corrections or additions to be made to the following list please advise Larry Breen, 8 The Paddocks, Naas, Co. Kildare. Tel. (045) 897445 e-mail: [email protected] Co. Carlow Carlow Historical Society, Deirdre Kearney, Ardmore, Browneshill Road, Carlow, Co. Carlow Tullowphelim Historical Society, John Keogh, EMA Dept., IT Carlow, Kilkenny Road, Carlow, Co. Carlow. Co. Cavan Belturbet Historical Society, Seamus McCaffrey, Co. Cavan. Cavan Historical Society, Lyn Sharkey, Rivendell, Corracanvy, Co. Cavan Virginia and District Historical Society, Mary Cunningham, 8 Riverview, Rahardrum Lane, Virginia, Co. Cavan Co. Clare Clare Archaeological and Historical Society, Mary Kearns, Ballycarroll, Barefield, Ennis, Co. Clare. Kilrush and Districk Historical Society, Paul O’Brien, Fort Road, Cappa, Kilrush, Co. Clare. North Clare Historical Society, Maura O’Loughlin, Carrowmanagh, Kilshanny, Co. Clare Shannon Archaeological and Historical Society, Peter Wise, 53 Ballycasey Crescent, Shannon, Co. Clare Co. Cork Anthony Greene, Peake, Coachford, Co. Cork Aubane Historical Society, Jack Lane, 26 Church Avenue, Roman Street, Cork Ballygarvan and District Local History Society, Thomas F. Ryan, ‘Bawnmore’, Sli Na Habhann, Ballygarvan, Co. Cork Bantry Historical Society, Angela O’Donovan, Goureebeg, Bantry, Co. Cork Beara Historical Society, Fachtna O’Donovan, Draum South, Castletownbere, Co. Cork Blackpool Historical Society, Mark Cronin, Blackpool Community Centre, 90 Gt. William O’Brien Street, Blackpool, Cork City, Co. Cork Blarney and District History Society, Agnes Hickey, Stoneview, Blarney, Co. Cork Cannovee Historical and Archaeological Society, Nora O’Leary, Kilcondy, Crookstown, Co. Cork Carrigtwohill and District Historical Society, Oliver Sheehan, Ballinbrittig, Carrigtwohill, Co. Cork. Charville Heritage Society, Michael McGrath, Fortlands, Charleville, Co. Cork Churchtown Historical and Heritage Society, Noel Linehan, Ballygrace, Churchtown, Mallow, Co. Cork Cloyne Literary and Historical Society, Marie Guillot, Kilcrone House, Cloyne, Co. Cork Cobh Animation Team, Claire Cullinane, Ferry View, Rushbrooke, Cobh, Co. Cork Cobh Museum, Beta, 1 High Street Road, Cobh, Co. Cork Cork Decorative Fine Arts Society, Marian O’Driscoll, 9 Beechwood Court, Newtown, Cobh, Co. Cork Cork Harbour Islands Project, Clare Stack, 5 Coolamber Close, Cobh, Co. Cork Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Ann Egan, 23 Belmont Park, Ballinlough, Cork, Co. Cork Cork South Parish Historical Society, Pat Leger, 30 St. Finbar’s Park, Glasheen Road, Cork, Co. Cork Cumann Seanchaise na Banndan, Pat McCarron, Mishells, Bandon, Co. Cork
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Dunmanway Historical Society, Marguerite Murray, c/o Dunmanway Historical Association, Main Street, Dunmanway, Co. Cork Friends of Cloyne Cathedral, Rowena Walsh, Ardbeg, Cloyne, Co. Cork Great Island Historical Society, John Hennessy, 25 Belmont Place, Cobh, Co. Cork History, Heritage and Tourism Group, , Co. Cork Ibane Local Studies Society, Dr. Leonard Madden, 14, Willow Close, Primrose Gate, Celbridge, Co. Kildare Kevin Tyrry, Swallow’s Rest, Coolbay, Cloyne, Co. Cork Kilbrittain Historical Society, Triona O’Sullivan, Coolmain, Kilbrittain, Co. Cork. Kilmeen-Castleventry Historical Society, Dan O’Leary, Caherkirky, Rossmore, Clonakilty, Co. Cork Kinsale Heritage Company, Dermot Ryan, Winter’s Hill, Kinsale, Co. Cork Kinsale History Society, Dermot Ryan, Winter’s Hill, Kinsale, Co. Cork Knockraha Historical Society, Pat Mulcahy, Valley View House, Shanballyrea, Knockraha, Co. Cork Mallow Field Club, Michael Reidy, Knockbarry, Buttevant, Co. Cork Mallow Development Partnership Heritage Group, Tim Sheehan, Avonmore, Cork Road, Mallow, Co. Cork. Shandon Area History Group, Grace O’Brien, 2 French’s Villas, Wolfe Tone Street, Cork Victor Sullivan, St. Mary’s Villa, Strawberry Hill, Sunday’s Well, Cork Whitegate and Aghada Historical Society, Joan Rockley, East Ferry, Midleton, Co. Cork Youghal Celebrates History, Breeda Phillips, St. Mary’s Collegiate Church, Youghal, Co. Cork. Youghal Chamber of Tourism and Development, Catherine Canavan, Market House, Market Square, Youghal, Co. Cork. Co. Donegal Raymochy Parishes Historical Society, William Lindsay, Lurgy, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal. Co. Dublin Accredited Genealogists Ireland, c/o Hon. Secretary, 30 Harlech Crescent, Dublin 14 Ballsbridge, Donnybrook and Sandymount History Society, Gail Wolfe, Pembroke Library, Anglesea Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4 Blanchardstown-Castleknock History Society, Aingeal McMorrow, 28 Cherryfield Lawn, Hartstown, Clonsilla, Dublin 16. Clondalkin History Society, Josephine Byrne, 64 Floraville Ave., Clondalkin, Dublin 22 Clontarf Historical Society, Kay Lonergan, 142 Vernon Ave., Clontarf, Dublin 3 Dun Laoghaire Borough Historical Society, Anna Scudds, 7 Northumberland Park, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin Foxrock History Club, Maureen Daly, 33 Tudor Lawns, Foxrock, Dublin 18 Howth Peninsula Heritage Society, Sean O’Brien, 36 Shielmartin Drive, Sutton, Dublin 13 Irish Genealogical Research Society, E. Rowland, 12 Cranagh Road, Rathfarnham, Dublin 14 Irish Labour History Society, Kevin Murphy, Beggers Bush, Haddington Road, Dublin 4. Industrial Heritage Association of Ireland, Ron Cox, Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin 2. Irish Family History Society, Mary Beglan, c/o 13 St. Assam’s Drive, Raheny, Dublin 5. Kilmacud – Stillorgan Local History Society, Clive O’Connor, 9 Marsham Court, Stillorgan, Co. Dublin Knocklyon History Society, Aoife O’Tierney, 15 Knocklyon Grove, Templeogue, Dublin 16 Loughshinny and Rush Historical Society, M. McCann Moore, Don Bosco, Harbour Rd., Rush, Co. Dublin Mills and Milllers of Ireland, Stephanie Bourke, 67 Hampton Green, Balbriggan, Co. Dublin
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Mount Merrion Historical Society, Tom Ryan, 60 Redesdale Road, Mount Merrion, Co. Dublin Old Dublin Society, Barry Farrell, 99 Ramleh Park, Milltown Road, Dublin 6. Raheny Heritage Society, Brian Wray, 101 Collins Park, Donnycarney, Dublin 9 Rathcoole Heritage Society, Brona uí Loing, 137 Cnoc na Coillte, Rathcuil, Contae Atha Cliath. Rathfarnham Historical Society, Vera Bannigan, 1 Aranleigh Park, Rathfarnham, Dublin 14. Rathmichael Historical Society, Richard Ryan, 6 Hillcourt Road, Glenageary, Co. Dublin Skerries Historical Society, Dr. Brendan Grimes, 17 Little Strand Street, Skerries, Co. Dublin Trees Rotteveel, 1 Dundela Crescent, Sandycove, Dublin. Co. Galway Fohenagh Local History Society, Frank Gavin, Pallas, Caltra, Ballinasloe, Co. Galway Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, Eugene Jordan, An Chorrbhuaile, Bearna, Co. Galway Kiltartan Gregory Cultural Society, Rena McAllen, Kiltartan Cross, Gort, Co. Galway Old Galway Society, Elizabeth Byrnes, Merville by The Bridge, Oranmore, Co. Galway South East Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, Stephen Dolan, St. Clerans, Craughwell, Co. Galway. Western Archaeology and Historical Society, Maresa Wrey, 5 St. Mary’s Park, Tailor’s Hill, Galway Co. Kerry Castleisland & District Culture and Heritage Society, Maggie Prenderville, Cordal West, Castleisland, Co. Kerry Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, Maureen Hanifin, Kerry County Library, Moyderwell, Tralee, Co. Kerry Co. Kildare Athy Museum Society, Eithne Wall, Chanterlands, Athy, Co. Kildare Ballymore Eustace History Society, Margaret Pearse, 2334 St. Brigid’s Park, Ballymore Eustace, Co. Kildare Celbridge Historical Society, Nuala Walker, 6 Elm Park, Celbridge, Co. Kildare. Cill Dara Historical Society, Joe Connelly, Tullywest, Kildare, Co. Kildare Clane Local History Group, Una Heffernan, Liosan, Millicent Road, Clane, Co. Kildare J. J. Woods, Brigadoon, Craddockstown Road, Naas, Co. Kildare Kildare Archaeological Society, Mrs. E. Connelly, Newington House, Christianstown, Newbridge, Co. Kildare Kill Local History Group, Brian McCabe, Ivy Cottages, Johnstown, Co. Kildare Maynooth Local History Group, Rita Edwards, 20 The Arches, Silken Vale, Maynooth, Co. Kildare Newbridge Local History Group, Bob Nugent, Tulladare, Standhouse Road, Newbridge, Co. Kildare. Rathcoffey History Group, Mairead Byrne, 135 Dara Court, Celbridge, Co. Kildare Susan Woods, Brigadoon, Craddockstown Road, Naas, Co. Kildare Saint Mochua History Society, Andy Flaherty, Timahoe, Donadea, Co. Kildare Co. Kilkenny Conahy Heritage Society, Eileen Gunner, Lisnafunchion, Castlecomer, Co. Kilkenny. Fassadinin Historical Society, Margaret O’Neill, Skehana, Castlecomer, Co. Kilkenny Graiguenamanagh Historical Society, David Flynn, Barrowfield, Tinnahinch, Graiguenamanagh, Co. Kilkenny. Kilkenny Archaeological Society, Andrew Lewis, c/o Rothe House, Parliament Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny South Kilkenny Historical Society, Eddie Synnott, Weatherstown, Glenmore, via Mullinavat Post Office, Co. Kilkenny
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Tullaherin Heritage Society, Joan Healy, Newtown, Bishops Lough, Bennettsbridge, Co. Kilkenny Co. Laois Laois Heritage Society, Dolores McEvoy, 70 Ashgrove, Mountmellick, Co. Laois. Co. Leitrim Carrick-on-Shannon and District Historical Society, Mary C. Dolan, Historical Centre, Market Yard, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim Co. Limerick Castleconnell Historical Society, Anne Murphy, Gouig, Castleconnell, Co. Limerick. Dun Blaise Historical and Literary Society, Donal Anderson, Doon South, Doon, Co. Limerick. Irish Palatine Association, Lorna Shier, Prospect House, Foynes, Co. Limerick Knockfierna Heritage Society, Marion Hanley, Ballinoe, Ballingarry, Co. Limerick Limerick Historical Society, Tony Browne, 24 Lifford Park, Limerick Lough Gur and District Historical Society, Kate Harrold, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick Mungret Heritage Society, Deirdre Broderick, Corbally, Mungret, Co. Limerick Thomond Archaeological Society, Mary Kenehan, 51 Rhebogue Meadows, Dublin Rd., Limerick, Co. Limerick Co. Longford Granard Area Historical Society, Andrew Smith, c/o Roth Mhuire Resource, Barrack Street, Granard, Co. Longford Longford Historical Society, Josephine O’Donnell, 8 Duet, The Courtyard, Newtownforbes, Co. Longford Co. Louth Annagassan and District Historical Scoiety, Luke Torris, Wyanstown, Togher, Dunleer, Co. Louth Dunleer and District Historical Society, Muriel Sheils, Grattanstown, Dunleer, Co. Louth Louth Archaeological and Historical Society, Seamus Bellew, 27 Stamanaran, Blackrock, Dundalk, Co. Louth Old Drogheda Society, Eamon Thornton, Millmount Museum, Drogheda, Co. Louth Old Dundalk Society, Nuala Bellew, Claret House, Upper Faughart, Dundalk, Co. Louth Co. Mayo Achill Historical and Archaeological Society, Paddy Lineen, Achill Sound, Westport, Co. Mayo. Ballinrobe Archaeological and Historical Society, Averil Staunton, Spring Vale, Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo. Cong Moytura Heritage Society, Marian McHugh, Drumshell Upper, Cong, Co. Mayo Mayo North Heritage / Research Centre, P. J. Lynn, Enniscoe, Castlehill, Balla, Co. Mayo North Mayo-West Sligo Heritage Group, Paddy Tuffy, Church View House, Lacken, Enniscrone P.O., Co. Sligo. Terry Reilly, Killala Road, Ballina, Co. Mayo Westport Historical Society, Bronach Joyce, Clew Bay Heritage Centre, Westport, Co. Mayo Co. Meath Ashbourne Historical Society, Ann Kavanagh, 55 Bourne View, Ashbourne, Co. Meath Meath Archaeological and Historical Society, Julitta Clancy, Parsonstown, Bettystown, Co. Meath Navan and District History Society, Ethna Cantwell, Windtown, Navan, Co. Meath
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Rathfraigh Historical Society, Nicola Dowling, 187 Kilcarn Court, Navan, Co. Meath Slane History and Archaeology Society, Mary McDonnell, Townley Hall Road, Tullyallen, Co. Meath St. Ultan’s Bohermeen Historical Society, Stephen Ball, Neilstown, Bohermeen, Navan, Co. Meath Co. Offaly Birr Historical Society, Jimmy Shortt, Ballaghanoher, Birr, Co. Offaly Offaly Heritage Centre Ltd., Michael Byrne, Bury Quay, Tullamore, Co. Offaly Co. Roscommon The Old Athlone Society, Richard Collins, St. John’s House, Lecarrow, Co. Roscommon Co. Roscommon Historical and Arch. Society, Albert Siggens, Castlestrange, Castlecoote, Co. Roscommon Tisrara Heritage Society, Rev. Francis Beirne, Tisrara, Four Roads, Roscommon, Co. Roscommon Co. Sligo Ballymote Heritage Group, John Coleman, O’Connell Street, Ballymote, Co. Sligo. Friends of Sligo Gaol, Tamlyn McHugh, 17 Cooldrumman, Upper Carney, Co. Sligo Sligo Field Club, Jim Foran, 13 Bawn Owl, Kevinstown, Sligo, Co. Sligo. Co. Tipperary Boherlahan/Dualla Historical Journal Society, Mr. T. A. Ryan, Ballinree House, Ballinree, Boherlahan, Co. Tipperary Borrisoleigh Historical Society, Delia Ryan, 5 St. Bridget’s Villas, Borrisoleigh, Thurles, Co. Tipperary Cahir Historical and Social Society, Sheila Collins, c/o Commercial House, Cahir, Co. Tipperary Clonmel and District Historical Society, Michael Dolan, 36 Rosemount Park, Rosegreen, Cashel, Co. Tipperary Dunikerrin Parish History Society, Joe O’Brien, 18 Cluain Doire, Kiltillnane, Templemore, Co. Tipperary Fethard Historical Society, Mary Hanrahan, Rathcoole, Fethard, Co. Tipperary Irish Kennedy Heritage Society, Phyllis Kennedy, Garnafana, Toomevara, Nenagh, Co. Tipperary Kilbarron-Terryglass Historical Society, Colum Hardy, Shanakill, Ballinderry, Nenagh, Co. Tipperary Mary Alice O’Connor, c/o Tipperary Excel Centre, Tipperary Town, Co. Tipperary. Maura Kiely, Goaten Bridge, Ardfinnan, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary Newcastle Historical Society, Anita Coyne, Priestown, Ballnamult, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary Silvermines Historical Society, Betty Gleeson, Tullymoylan, Doola, Nenagh, Co. Tipperary Tipperary Clans Heritage Society, John Bradshaw, Goats’ Lane, Bansha Rd., Tipperary, Co. Tipperary Tipperary County Historical Society, Dr. Denis G. Marnane, 20 Main Street, Tipperary, Co. Tipperary Co. Waterford Portlaw Heritage Centre, Ger Crotty, c/o Malcomson Square, Portlaw, Co. Waterford. Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society, Michael Maher, 26 Kenure Court, Powerscourt, Waterford, Co. Waterford Co Westmeath Moate Historical Society, Marie Fitzgerald, Glebe House, Mount Temple, Moate, Co. Westmeath
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016 Westmeath Archaeological and Heritage Society, Mrs. Rosemary Cassidy, Slanemore, Mullingar, Co. Westmeath Co. Wexford Bannow Historical Society, Dermot McCarthy, Skiathos, Sea View, Forth Mountain, Wexford, Co. Wexford. North Wexford Historical Society, Philip Jones, Alaya, Barnadown Upper, Gorey, Co. Wexford Old Kilenor Historical Society, Damian Nash, Borleagh, Inch, Gorey, Co. Wexford Taghmon Historical Society, Vera Power, Newtown, Taghmon, Co. Wexford Ui Cinsealaigh Historical Society, Mary J. Mackey, Ballypreacus, Bunclody, Co. Wexford Co. Wicklow Blessington History Society, Jim Corley, Crosschapel, Blessington, Co. Wicklow Bray Cualann Historical Society, May Harte, Royston, Westfield Park, Bray, Co. Wicklow Greystones Archaeological and Historical Society, Aileen Short, ‘Brookfield’, Glen Rd., Delgany, Co. Wicklow Rathdangan Historical Society, Kathleen Cullen, Killamoat, Rathdangan, Kiltegan, Co. Wicklow Roundwood & District Historical & Folklore Society, Derek Neilson, Beaumont, Roundwood, Bray, Co. Wicklow The Medieval Bray Project, David McIlreavy, 8 Haven Court, Convent Avenue, Bray, Co. Wicklow West Wicklow Historical Society, Donal McDonnell, Coolnarrig, Baltinglass, Co. Wicklow. Wicklow Historical Society, Stan J. O’Reilly, 1 The Bank, Rathnew, Co. Wicklow Jim Rees, 3 Meadows Lane, Arklow, Co. Wicklow.
LOCAL HISTORY JOURNAL 2016
Federation of Local History Societies Membership Application/Renewal Form Society _____________________________________________________________ Secretary ___________________________________________________________ Address ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Telephone No._______________ ________ Mobile: ______________________ e-mail: ______________________________________________________________ Other Contact Phone ________________________________________________ Number of members in Society _____________________*Fee €___________ *Membership fee per annum: Individual: 40 members or less: 41+ members:
€10 €25 €50
Cheques should be made payable to: The Federation of Local History Societies, c/o Mairead Byrne, 135 Dara Court, Celbridge, Co. Kildare Email - [email protected] Note: This form may be downloaded from the Federation Web Site, www.localhistory.ie Only fully paid-up members of the Federation are covered under the discounted Group Insurance Scheme provided by Alan B. Kidd & Co. Ltd, E6 Nutgrove Office Park, Rathfarnham, Dublin 14. Tel. No. 01 207 9400
Mar 13, 1986 - baIted bark beetle traps III open areas rn the city ...... ed labor It may mean mcreased prIces for public servIces that ...... P~rcell~. Sa turd:l v. !\larch. 22. Brownell's 'Bano and Orchestra's. Rummage Sale and Bake Sale all day at
Jun 23, 1988 - ers of Valente ..... Manager Dan Coe will be responsible for over- all operations and chef Bill Watson will be in ... DeS~nt1s saId some of the Family Dollar store, ample park- ...... Several Parcells students celebrate as school leIs
Feb 8, 1996 - Until they are cleaned out or convert- ... Press," to be published this spring. .... thetic to power suppliers and those who ...... trv~h2 Whether ...... won't have an AMGeneral four.passenger, open-top Hummer. ..... owner Kit Tennyson.
Feb 11, 1998 - Sff s. QCoton Crier. WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1998! Who's rights? You decide. By FRANK AMATO. Last week, a 16 year old "student" from the ...... 0. Leduc's Card and Gift Shop has,, some interesting ideas for this spe^ cial day. Their Ya
Oct 11, 1990 - report, the five Grosse Pomtes .... f,1l110U"l11.lkel lorl1l,11 ,bm" ,lie leduced up to 50% Choo"e. 1) ..... Learn to feed the hungry child within you. ... 0\ the portion rn error Notll cation must be given In ...... CM"m~n. PublIC Sel
Sep 9, 2005 - Scott Dulchavsky will have one of the best seats ..... Studio, David Secord, DDS. &. General Funding ...... eGenter's meoo! health and otnercommunity- msed program;. NATIONAL ..... D.D.S., FAGD ...... 49 DUdley Do-. 27 Worry.
Mar 5, 1986 - Delivery Service. Service Contracts & Automatic Do!i very now available ...... CNC with FANUC Control ...... assignments, and our benefit package We have im- mediate .....
May 16, 1974 - M3,Ml), 1973.74. was $1,487,110O,and. '1' h' ...... Ai the tendon of expanding the pro. bave been ver)' cooperative. ...... Sander levin, attorDey q4.' ...... eaving the store and running McKendrick with 6:07 lett to winners included.
Oct 2, 1986 - trOlt's Umverslty Health Center in the MedIcal Center ..... one nurse at a tIme, walchmg over me and .... drugs or surgery - the process of heart muscle death, and men in ...... KIm, Jae 5., !It 0 ...... play Blbhop Borgess High School.
Babylonian astrology was introduced to the Greeks early in the 4th century B.C. and, through the studies of Plato, Aristotle, and others, astrology came to be highly ... Despite the fact that scientists today are dealing with cosmic rays and their in
else in the group f. phrases used in referring to one's character or personality g. swardspeak, language of the underworld, dialect. Vietnam. * âkiÃªng ky sau khi ...
Sep 12, 1991 - that location would be detri- pand the liquor stock if the sale. - . ~. Pointer of Interest. Norbert J. Kaminski. Possible sale of Schettler upsets ...
Jetter infantry for our Anny by training and developing the leadership qualities of combat commllnders. --~.._----_._-----------. 2240T "":',~Icat Modn" St, Clair Shorâ¢â¢.
Dec 24, 1987 - Craig Oshnockl, a local diver. brings his gear up as workers bring up ...... some, lather ...... 68L.\K I 8% 2000. In thiS se-ason of peace and goodwill families ...... drywall repairs. TextUring and stucco. Insured. Pete Tar- omlna.
Sep 29, 1975 - October 5 (Center sponsored. Call Center for schools Catch' A lot of voters Iare ever seekmg beauty In the hfe underwriter, the highest de. cempetJtlve examinations will be I â¢. "st ordinary nbblt, cODlirned to I further !pfol matlOn
A telegram from the National. Safety Oouncil to ...... Pointe Health Commissioner. The council ...... the season to drive in 3 Cardi- ico and Spiess, and going into p~ants e. 7. I a good ...... 1.7" B. Wanen Ai. Uti .1. I .t. ~rI. ...... correspondin
Aug 20, 1997 - Officers and for (heir hard work building a ramp so that my mother can get in and out of the house safely." Darlenc ...... SNACK CRACKERS. 12 OZ. RED&WHITE. MAPLE. 24 OZ. SYRUP 99 t. BTL. RED&WHITE. PANCAKE MIX. COMPLETE OR BUTTERMILK
Jul 21, 1999 - Andover Planning Director Steve. Collier said .... Worcester for the spring 1999 se- mester. ..... Publisher Emeritus Capt Larz Neilson ...... The Pines of Tewksbury provides a unique assisted living ..... Chelmsford campus accelerated
Oct 9, 2010 - Course. Jockeys in gay-colored silks quickly mount and take their ...... weeks in advllllce of this event. ..... dme~lcand.eau y agc- George Stewart TU 1-1596 and ... wore a white embroidered or-I Dr. Ryan is a resident at Mas- ...... ~
Entued as Second'Class Mauer. >.t thIlPort.:Office at Detroit, Mlc:h.. Pointe~ ... er, remarked, "The new building tIon to the recently approved ..... COLUMBIA, Mo. ..... witnessed the assault and ar- Lake Shore Jane; Jo~n Kasabach.Phi ..... Campbell