With over 30 years of focus and experience Victrex Polymer Solutions, a division of Victrex plc, is the world’s leading manufacturer of high performance polyaryletherketones (PAEK) including VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer. Our product portfolio is one of the broadest range of polyaryletherketones on the market. We work with our customers and end users to deliver technology driven solutions to meet the challenges and opportunities they face and help them to achieve new levels of cost savings, quality and performance in the aerospace, automotive, electronics, energy, industrial, medical and semiconductor markets.
Tribology Friction and Wear Block on Ring Thrust Washer Limiting Pressure and Velocity
13 13 13 14 15
Environmental Resistance Hydrolysis Resistance Gas and Liquid Permeation Chemical Resistance Radiation Resistance Outgassing Characteristics
16 16 16 17 18 18
Approvals and Specifications Materials of Choice
VICTREX PEEK polymer provides exceptional performance over a wide range of temperatures and extreme conditions. It is a linear, aromatic, semi-crystalline polymer widely regarded as one of the highest performing thermoplastics in the world. It provides a unique combination and range of high performance properties. In addition to VICTREX PEEK polymer, we have two additional PAEK polymers, VICTREX® HT™ polymer and VICTREX® ST™ polymer that can maintain mechanical performance at increasingly higher temperatures in hostile environments. When an end use application demands a combination of three or more performance properties our PAEK offer a tremendous material advantage with unmatched versatility. This ability to combine properties without sacrificing performance allows our materials to perform in a wide variety of operating conditions and broad range of applications.
Why Victrex PAEKs? • Unique combination of properties • Extensive grade range • Processed using conventional processing equipment • Conforming to global approvals and specifications • Product consistency • Security of supply • Supported by expert technical teams globally
High Temperature Performance Excellent high temperature performance, with glass transition temperatures ranging between 289ºF - 324ºF and melting temperatures between 649ºF - 729ºF.
Electrical Performance Electrical properties which are maintained over a wide frequency and temperature range. Low Smoke and Toxic Gas Emission Inherently flame retardant without the use of additives. Low toxicity of combustion gases.
The broadest portfolio of polyaryletherketones, including VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer. Victrex materials provide exceptional performance over a wide range of temperatures and extreme conditions.
Purity Exceptionally low outgassing and extractables. Environmentally Friendly Lightweight, fully recyclable, halogen free, and RoHS compliant.
Wear Resistance High abrasion and cut through resistance combined with a low coefficient of friction.
Victrex APTIV™ film provides all of the properties of VICTREX PEEK polymer in a flexible format and is regarded as the most versatile and high performing thermoplastic films available.
Ease of Processing One of the highest performing melt processable materials available today using conventional thermoplastic processing equipment.
Chemical Resistance Withstands a wide range of acids, bases, hydrocarbons and organic solvents. Hydrolysis Resistance Low moisture absorption, resistant to steam, water and sea water, with low permeability.
Eco-friendly VICOTE® coatings, available in powder and aqueous dispersions, deliver resistance to high temperatures, exceptional scratch and wear resistance, high strength and durability.
Victrex materials are offered with different melt viscosities to meet specific thermoplastic process requirements: melt viscosity increases from the high flow PEEK 90 polymer to the standard viscosity PEEK 450 polymer. Products may be melt filtered into unfilled pellets,
milled into fine powders, or compounded using a variety of fillers as well as being available in finished forms such as stock shapes, fibers, films, pipe and coatings. Table 1 gives an overview of the Victrex Polymer Solutions’ product portfolio.
Outperforming standard wear grades at higher speed / load applications
Meeting specific ranges of resistivity
Figure 2: Typical tensile stress-strain curves for PEEK compounds (450G for comparison)
Victrex materials are widely regarded as the highest performing thermoplastic polymers with good retention of mechanical properties over a wide range of temperatures and conditions.
TENSILE PROPERTIES The tensile properties of Victrex polymers exceed those of most engineering thermoplastics. Tensile performance was evaluated according to ISO 527 and a comparative tensile plot of unfilled Victrex polymers is shown in Figure 1. These unfilled grades show ductile behavior with a yield point of approximately 5% elongation and a tensile strength exceeding 14,000 psi.
Tensile Strength [psi]
50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 0.0
Tensile Strain [%]
Figure 1: Typical tensile stress-strain curves for unfilled Victrex polymers
PEEK 450FC30 PEEK450G
PEEK 90HMF40 PEEK 450CA30 PEEK 450GL30
Figure 3: Ranges of tensile strength of Victrex materials
16,000 Tensile Strength [psi]
Tensile Strain [%] PEEK 150G PEEK 450G
HT G22 ST G45
Adding fillers increases strength and stiffness as shown in Figure 2 for a range of PEEK compounds. Filled compounds typically do not exhibit a yield point and therefore break in a brittle way. Tensile modulus, strength and elongation vary significantly depending on the type of filler and filler content. Figure 3 summarizes the ranges of tensile strength for unfilled, glass fiber-filled and carbon fiber-filled materials as well as for wear grades.
Tensile Strength [psi]
Victrex materials are used to form structural components which experience or continually operate at high temperatures. Figure 4 shows a plot of tensile strength versus temperature for a range of Victrex materials and demonstrates a good retention of mechanical properties over a wide temperature range. Figure 4: Tensile strength versus temperature of various Victrex materials 60,000 50,000 Tensile Strength [psi]
40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 0
PEEK 90HMF40 PEEK 450CA30
PEEK 450GL30 PEEK 450G
Figure 6: Compressive strength versus temperature of a range of Victrex materials
FLEXURAL PROPERTIES Victrex materials exhibit outstanding flexural performance over a wide temperature range. Flexural strength was evaluated according to ISO 178 with the results plotted versus temperature in Figure 5.
Compressive Strength [psi]
As for all semi-crystalline polymers, flexural strength of Victrex materials is temperature dependent, with a pronounced step-change going through the glass transition (Tg). Even so, values of flexural strength of filled materials can achieve in excess of 29,000 psi at temperatures above Tg. The improvement in flexural strength retention in these graphs is explained by the increasing Tg going from PEEK, HT to ST.
Figure 5: Flexural strength versus temperature of various Victrex materials
Temperature [˚F] PEEK 450FC30 PEEK 450G
PEEK 450CA30 ST 45CA30 WG101
Victrex materials have outstanding creep resistance and may sustain large stresses over a useful service life with little time-dependent deformation. Creep is defined as the deformation observed versus time under a constant applied stress. Tensile creep was evaluated according to ISO 899 at 73°F over a period of 1000h.
50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 0
Temperature [˚F] ST 45GL30 PEEK 450GL30 PEEK 90HMF40 ST 45CA30
PEEK 450CA30 ST G45 PEEK 450G HT G22
COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES Compressive strength was evaluated in accordance with ISO 604 at temperatures up to 480°F. Figure 6 shows compressive strength versus temperature for a range of Victrex materials with focus on grades typically used in wear and extreme high pressure applications, and unfilled PEEK 450G as reference.
Tensile creep results for PEEK 450G at 73°F are shown in Figure 7 for several constant stress levels ranging from 2,900 psi to 8,700 psi. HT and ST have been included at 8,700 psi for comparison. The instantaneous deformation (strain at short creep-times) correlates to the stress-strain relationship derived in a tensile test, accordingly creep curves start at higher elongations with increasing applied loads. HT and ST exhibit slightly lower creep at 8,700 psi compared to PEEK 450G. Figure 7: Tensile creep of PEEK 450G, HT and ST at 73°F 2.5
2.0 Tensile Strain [%]
Flexural Strength [psi]
0.0 10 -3
Time [h] HT G22 (8700 psi) ST G45 (8700 psi) 450G (8700 psi) 450G (7250 psi)
450G (5800 psi) 450G (4350 psi) 450G (2900 psi)
Adding fillers to unfilled polymer enhances mechanical performance such as strength and stiffness and therefore creep performance, with the increase dependent upon the type of filler and filler content. The high strength and stiffness characteristics of PEEK and HT compounds under conditions of creep are shown in Figure 8 at 73°F and a constant load of 13,050 psi.
Figure 9: Tensile fatigue of a range of Victrex materials at 5Hz at 73°F and 250°F 45,000 40,000
PEEK 90HMF40, which has the highest strength and stiffness properties of all Victrex materials, demonstrates outstanding creep resistance. PEEK 450CA30 and PEEK 450GL30 are showing somewhat higher measurable time dependent creep at 13,050 psi compared to PEEK 90HMF40. HT compounds showed slightly improved creep performance opposed to PEEK polymer-based equivalents.
Tensile Strength [psi]
35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000
Figure 8: Tensile creep of PEEK and HT compounds at 73°F and constant stress of 13,050 psi
FATIGUE PROPERTIES Fatigue may be defined as the reduction in mechanical properties during continued cyclic loading. Tensile fatigue was evaluated using ISO tensile bars stressed at 5Hz with a sine wave between 10 and 100% of predefined loads. Figure 9 shows the excellent fatigue performance at 73°F and 250°F for a range of Victrex materials. PEEK 450G shows very little decay in a tensile fatigue situation at 73°F. Adding fillers to unfilled PEEK enhances fatigue stress levels significantly.
Impact testing is used to investigate the behavior of materials under specific impact conditions and for estimating their toughness within the limitations inherent to the test conditions. There is a vast variety of test methods, low energy studies performed using pendulum geometry and high energy studies where failures are evaluated using falling weight apparatus. Pendulum geometry may use a cantilever support as in Izod impact testing (ISO 180) or a 3-point-bending configuration as in Charpy impact testing (ISO 179); with both using notched or unnotched impact bars. Figures 10 and 11 show Izod and Charpy impact strength of edgewise loaded samples for a range of Victrex materials, notched and unnotched. Unfilled Victrex materials are extremely tough and do not break in unnotched configuration in Izod or Charpy impact testing. Adding fillers to PEEK enhances the notched toughness.
6 notched un-notched
0 0 0 0 30 30 30 L3 L3 L3 F4 CA CA CA M 0G 2G 5G 2 0 5 H 5 2 4 2 4 4 45 T T 90 ST ST H H EK EK EK E E PE P P
Un-notched Impact Strength [ft-lb/in2]
Notched Impact Strength [ft-lb/in2]
Figure 10: Izod impact strength of various Victrex materials at 73°F
5 notched un-notched
0 0 0 0 30 30 30 L3 L3 L3 F4 CA CA CA M 0G 2G 5G 2 0 5 H 5 2 4 2 4 4 45 T T 90 ST ST H H EK EK EK E E PE P P
Impact properties are temperature dependent as shown in Figure 12 for a range of Victrex materials. An increase in toughness is measured as temperature increases from -65°F to 250°F.
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer specified for aircraft landing gear hubcaps withstanding impacts of flying debris and has excellent environmental resistance in harsh conditions.
THERMAL PROPERTIES Victrex polymers have glass transition (Tg) and crystalline melting temperatures (Tm) in the range shown in Figure 13. Due to the semi-crystalline nature of these polymers a high degree of mechanical properties is retained close to their melting temperatures.
Figure 13: The glass transition (Tg) and crystalline melting temperatures (Tm) for Victrex polymers determined by differencial scanning calorimetry (DSC) ISO 11357 750
Tg [˚F ]
Notched Impact Strength [ft-lb/in2 ]
Figure 12: Notched Charpy impact strength versus temperature of various Victrex materials
600 300 550
Tm [˚F ]
Un-notched Impact Strength [ft-lb/in2]
Notched Impact Strength [ft-lb/in2]
Figure 11: Charpy impact strength of various Victrex materials at 73˚F
500 450 400 PEEK
0 PEEK 150G
PEEK 150GL30 –65˚F
HEAT DEFLECTION TEMPERATURE
The short term thermal performance of polymers may be characterized by determining the heat deflection temperature (HDT, ISO 75) at which a defined deformation is observed in a sample under constant applied stress (264 psi) at constant heating rate. Victrex materials have excellent stiffness at high temperatures and correspondingly have high HDT values when compared with other high performance polymers.
The excellent retention of mechanical properties at various aging temperatures in air for unfilled PEEK was determined as a measure of thermal aging resistance. Results are shown in Figures 16 and 17. The initial increase in tensile strength observed in Figure 16 is a result of increased crystallinity due to annealing. The subsequent decrease in strength with time is due to thermal degradation.
Figure 14: Heat deflection temperature (at 264 psi) for Victrex materials and other high performance polymers
Figure 16: Retained tensile strength of unfilled PEEK versus conditioning time at high temperatures
140 Retention of Tensile Strength [%]
HDT [˚F ]
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 VICTREX 30% Carbon
VICTREX 30% Glass
PAI + 30% Glass
PPS + 40% Glass
PES + 30% Glass
5000 h, 103%
100 80 60 40 20 0 0
PPA + 33% Glass
Aging Time [h] 300˚F 500˚F
RELATIVE THERMAL INDEX
Figure 15: Relative thermal index (RTI) – mechanical without impact – for a range of high performance materials 300
Figure 17: Retained flexural strength following high temperature aging for unfilled PEEK and HT 25,000
Flexural Strength [psi]
Polymers are subject to thermal degradation at elevated temperatures. These effects may be evaluated by measuring the relative thermal index (RTI) as defined by Underwriters Laboratories (UL746B). This test determines the temperature at which 50% of a particular material property is retained compared to a control material whose RTI is already known (RTI typically corresponds to extrapolated times between 60,000 and 100,000 hours). The UL RTI rating for Victrex materials compared to other high performance polymers are shown in Figure 15.
250 1000 hours aging at 610˚F
200 150 100 50 0 PEEK 450G
PEEK PEEK PPA + 450GL30 450CA30 33%
PAI + 30%
PPS + 40%
2000 hours aging at 610˚F
The CLTE of a range of Victrex materials below Tg in the flow direction are compared to various metals in Figure 19.
The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) was measured according to ISO 11359. Materials were studied in three axes to fully characterize the anisotropic effects of filled grades. Figure 18 shows the variation in CLTE for standard PEEK grades in the flow direction and as an average of all three directions. Unfilled grades such as PEEK 450G are nearly isotropic and have little difference in expansion in different directions. However, glass fiber and carbon fiber-filled grades are anisotropic and as such have low expansion in the flow direction but significantly higher expansion transverse to flow. Also, there is a significant increase in CLTE as temperature is increased above Tg, with the difference lower for compounds, particularly in the flow direction.
Figure 19: Coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) for various Victrex materials versus metals (flow direction, below Tg) 30
20 CLTE [ppm/˚F]
COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION
Figure 18: Coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) for various Victrex materials below and above Tg
l y l y y 0 y 0 30 30 0G um ee ee llo L3 llo F4 llo Allo FC A G 45 A St min St A CA M 0 0 r 0 H n m ss m 9 m EK 45 lu 45 pe le 90 iu iu K bo A liu PE in op K EK EK ar es yl an EE a r E C E t E C n P t i P P S T h PE Be ag ig M H
90 80 70 CLTE [ppm/˚F ]
60 50 40
Thermogravimetry (TGA) illustrates the thermal stability of PEEK in air. Degradation only starts above 1000°F with insignificant levels of outgassing at lower temperatures as can be seen in the comparative plot of PEEK 450G and other high performance polymers in Figure 20.
20 10 0 Below Tg
Flow Direction Only PEEK 450G
Average of Three Directions
Figure 20: Thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis of PEEK and other high performance polymers 100 90 Weight Retention [%]
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0
Temperature [˚F] PEEK 450G PA66 PEI
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer was selected in a cooling jacket application due to the material’s dimensional stability, low radio frequency (RF) losses, and its ability to be precisely machined resulting in a new 1-part design.
RHEOLOGY Like most thermoplastic materials the melt viscosity of Victrex materials is temperature dependent and shows shear thinning. A comparative plot of melt viscosity at a shear rate of 1000/s for a range of high performance polymers is shown in Figure 21. Although PEEK has one of the highest processing temperatures, the melt viscosity of PEEK 450G is in the range of polycarbonate melts. Melt viscosity depends on base resin, filler type and filler level. Materials based on PEEK 450 have higher viscosity than those based on PEEK 150 and PEEK 90. Blending Victrex polymers with fillers such as glass or carbon fiber leads to higher viscosities as can be seen from Figure 22. Based on the high flow grade PEEK 90G compounds with up to 60 weight-% filler content are possible having a lower viscosity than 30%-filled compounds of standard viscosity PEEK 450G. The wear grades with 30 weight-% fillers have viscosities similar to other 30%-filled products shown in Figure 22.
Rheology of Victrex polymers is suitable for standard injection molding as well as for critical melt processing technologies such as extrusion of APTIV™ films.
Figure 21: Melt viscosity at a shear rate of 1000/s at typical processing temperatures for a range of thermoplastics Melt Viscosity [poise]
Figure 22: Melt viscosity (1000/s; 750°F) of various Victrex materials (ST at 790°F) 7,000
Melt Viscosity [poise ]
6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 PEEK 90
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer replaced steel in high-speed rotors and intricate bearing shells for dispersion instruments used in the medical industry.
FLAMMABILITY AND COMBUSTION PROPERTIES Flammability can be defined as the ability of a material to support combustion, a flammable material being one which is easily ignited and burns rapidly. Victrex materials are inherently resistant to combustion, and when they do burn, they produce few toxic or corrosive gases compared with other polymers. The addition of fillers (such as glass or carbon fiber) further improves Victrex materials inherent resistance to combustion.
IGNITION The glow wire test (IEC 695-2-1) assesses the material’s resistance to ignition as well as the ability to self extinguish. Unfilled PEEK and its compounds achieve a glow wire flamibility index (GWF) 1,760°F rating – they ignite at 1,760°F but self extinguish on removal of the glow wire.
These can be more lethal than the fire itself, as they can incapacitate people rendering them unable to escape from the fire. Corrosive fire gases such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) will permanently damage sensitive electronic equipment. The combustion products of Victrex materials are predominantly carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The amount of CO is less than 5% of the limits specified in aviation toxicity standards (example Boeing BSS 7239, Airbus ATS-1000). Toxicity data is usually reported as an amount relative to the amount of gas considered to be fatal to humans. Table 2 shows the result of tests carried out in NBS smoke chamber, which confirms that the only toxic gas generated in significant quantities is carbon monoxide.
FLAMMABILITY The most widely accepted measure of flammability for plastic materials is the UL94 vertical burn test which assess the ability of a plastic material to self extinguish once ignited – it is not a measure of the resistance to ignition. Unfilled PEEK 450G achieves UL94 V-0 rating at 0.060". Glass or carbon fiber-filled grades achieve UL94 V-0 ratings at 0.020" over a wide range of filler levels.
SMOKE DENSITY Burning plastics generate smoke, generally from incomplete combustion. Smoke reduces visibility, making it more difficult to escape from a fire. The smoke levels of Victrex materials are over 95% lower than the limits specified in aviation flammability standards (example: Boeing BSS 7238).
SMOKE, TOXICITY AND CORROSIVITY Burning plastics generate a range of toxic fire gases, including hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sulphur gases (SO2, H2S), nitrous gases (NO, NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO).
Flame resistant VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer replaces metal in aerospace P-clamps, saving weight and reducing installation time.
Table 2: Toxicity of Combustion Gases from NBS Smoke Chamber Test Test without Flame [ppm] after 90s Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Test with Flame [ppm]
Maximum Allowable [ppm]
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)
Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)
Sulphur-Containing Gases (H2S, SO2)
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)
Figure 24 shows the surface resistivity for Victrex materials tested in accordance with American National Standards Institute’s ESD test method ESD S11.11 and the impact of moisture. In all cases the resistivity following immersion is reduced. Larger changes are seen for the filled compounds but PEEK, HT and ST still remain insulating.
Victrex materials are often used as an electrical insulator with outstanding thermal, environmental resistance and mechanical performance.
VOLUME RESISTIVITY The volume resistance of a material is defined as the ratio of potential difference [volts] parallel to the current in a material, to the current density [amps]. As with all insulating materials, the change in resistivity with temperature, humidity, component geometry and time may be significant and must be evaluated when designing for operating conditions. These effects are plotted for PEEK 450G in terms of volume resistivity versus electrification time and temperature in Figure 23. HT displays similar volume resistivity properties to PEEK 450G under these conditions.
Figure 23: Volume resistivity versus electrification time at various temperatures for PEEK 450G
Figure 24: Influence of moisture uptake on the surface resistivity of Victrex materials 10 18 Surface Resistivity [Ohm/sq]
DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES The dielectric constant (or relative permittivity) is the ratio of a material’s permittivity to the permittivity of a vacuum. In polymers the dielectric constant is a function of frequency and temperature. Figure 25 shows the dielectric constant for PEEK 450G over a range of temperatures and frequencies.
10 13 390˚F
10 12 10 11 0
The surface resistance of a material is defined as the ratio of the potential difference between two electrodes forming a square geometry on the surface of a specimen and the current which flows between them. Victrex materials have a surface resistivity typical of high performance polymers.
5 4 Dielectric Constant
Figure 25: Dielectric constant of PEEK 450G at temperatures between 73˚F and 392˚F and frequencies between 100Hz and 100MHz
0 100 Hz
100 kHz 73˚F
100 MHz 390˚F
The loss tangent (dissipation factor) is expressed as the ratio of the power loss in a dielectric material to the power transmitted through it. The loss tangent for PEEK 450G over a range of temperatures and frequencies is shown in Figure 26. Results are comparable to other high performance materials.
Figure 26: Loss Tangent of PEEK 450G at temperatures between 73˚F and 392˚F and frequencies between 100Hz and 100MHz
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer is being used for housings of aluminium electrolytic capacitors, meeting the requirements for lead-free soldering technologies in the electronics industry.
10 -3 100 Hz
100 kHz 73˚F
100 MHz 390˚F
The dielectric strength is the voltage required to produce a dielectric breakdown in a material and is a measure of a material’s electrical strength as an insulator. Apart from the material type the dielectric strength is also influenced by other factors including sample thickness and temperature. Figure 27 shows the dependency of dielectric strength on thickness and temperature in PEEK films.
Figure 27: Influence of thickness and temperature on the dielectric strength of crystalline PEEK film VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer is enabling Back-End Test OEMs to enhance their performance with improved machinability to extremely fine pitches with low burr, excellent electrical properties including maintained dielectric properties over multiple cycles.
Dielectric Strength [V/mil]
7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 24
Thickness [mils] 73˚F 212˚F 390˚F
STATIC DECAY PROPERTIES AND DISSIPATIVE MATERIALS The retention of a static charge on the surface of a material and the subsequent surface potentials are a concern in many electronic applications. Figure 28 demonstrates the response of three Victrex materials following exposure to a 9kV corona. The suitability of a material in a triboelectrical environment is indicated by the amount of charge that initially couples to the sample’s surface and the time it takes to dissipate. The results show that PEEK 450G charges easier and decays slower. PEEK ESD101 is least susceptible to charging with the additional benefit of faster decay times [1/e refers to the time for the initial peak charge to decay to 36.8% of its value measured in seconds]. Wafer cassettes made with VICTREX® PEEK-ESD™ polymer dissipate static charges in a controlled way, preventing damage to the wafer and preventing wafer contamination due to electrostatic attraction by reducing and preventing electrostatic accumulation.
Figure 28: Static decay characteristics of PEEK 450G, 450CA30 and ESD101 10 4
Figure 29: Schematic representation of the resistivity of Victrex materials 10 18
In terms of resistivity, PEEK ESD101 is dissipative. It offers tight control of surface resistance within the important ESD region of 106 and 109. Other Victrex materials do not offer tight control of surface resistivity, and are either insulating like unfilled or glass filled materials, or they show a large variability of surface resistance within the conductive to dissipative region like carbon-filled materials as shown in Figure 29.
Using VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer in the manufacture of connectors and sensors allows for excellent dielectric properties over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies in combination with dimensional stability through the leadfree soldering process, mechanical strength, wear resistance and compliance to RoHS.
Wear is the progressive loss of material from surfaces in relative motion to one another. Wear may make the surface smoother or rougher, due to a range of processes including surface fatigue, abrasive wear and adhesive wear. The lower the wear rate, the better the resistance to wear in that specific wear scenario. The wear rate is defined as the rate of height loss in a specific wear environment, but is often reported as specific wear rate or wear factor (wear rate / (pressure x velocity). The wear rate is influenced by the test conditions (pressure and velocity), it is therefore vital to know whether the wear factor is from high speed / low pressure or from low speed / high pressure testing. Friction is the resistance to sliding motion between two surfaces. It is a dimensionless property (µ), varying with velocity, pressure, temperature, lubrication, the roughness and nature of the contacting surface. Frictional heating increases the temperature of the component especially in situations where there is limited possibility for heat to be removed from the system. As temperature increases above Tg, for a given material, there is a corresponding increase in wear rate (the material becoming softer).
BLOCK ON RING The block-on-ring test geometry (ASTM G137) measures the wear resistance of polymers under dry sliding conditions. This configuration is better suited for measurement of steady state wear rates at high loads and speeds which would lead to overheating (premature failure by melting) in the ASTM D3702 thrust washer configuration. Despite the differences in testing configurations, a good correlation in the ranking of wear resistance is achieved between the two methods.
Figure 30: Specific wear rate of various Victrex materials tested using the block-on-ring method
FRICTION AND WEAR
Victrex materials are used for tribological components due to their outstanding resistance to wear under high pressure and velocity conditions.
Specific Wear Rate [10 in -min/ft-lb-h]
Tribology is the branch of engineering that deals with the interaction of contacting surfaces in relative motion under applied load; their design, friction, wear and lubrication.
block-on-ring tests on a range of Victrex materials over the pressure times velocity (PV) range of 145,000 435,000 psi ft/min show that wear grades exhibit significantly lower wear rates than the PEEK 450CA30 reference as can be seen in Figure 30.
80 60 40 20 0 725psi and 200ft/min
1100psi and 400 ft/min
Pressure and Velocity Condition PEEK 450CA30
There is little difference in the coefficient of friction at the low velocity and pressure condition. The coefficient of friction of lubricated compounds reduces at higher velocity and pressure conditions, but increases for the non-lubricated PEEK 450CA30 as shown in Figure 31.
Figure 31: Coefficient of friction of various Victrex materials tested using the block-on-ring method 0.8 Coefficient of Friction, µ
0.0 725 psi and 200 ft/min
1100 psi and 400 ft/min
Pressure and Velocity Condition PEEK 450CA30 PEEK 450FC30
The ASTM D3702 thrust washer test method (wear rate and coefficient of friction of materials in self-lubricated rubbing contact) is widely used in the automotive industry to compare and rank polymers. Tests carried out at speeds of 200 - 800 ft/min loads of 50 - 95 psi (PV levels 10,000 - 75,000 psi ft/min) show the effect of formulation on wear performance for a range of Victrex materials and can be seen in Figure 32. Carbon-fiber materials (CA and HMF codes) have reduced wear rate compared with glass-fiber compounds (GL codes). Materials with wear additives (FC, FW and WG codes) show the lowest wear rates over these test conditions. Figure 32: Average wear rates at low PV levels of various Victrex materials tested using the thrust washer method
Figure 34 shows that VICTREX WG polymers run with lower coefficient of friction than other high performance materials. Note that the coefficient of friction is four times higher than obtained with the block-on-ring (ASTM G137) method discussed previously.
Figure 34: Coefficient of friction of various Victrex materials compared to other high performance materials tested using the thrust washer method at 1m/s test speed 0.20 Coefficient of Friction, µ
0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00
1.4 250 psi
PI Wear Grade
PAI Wear Grade
Wear Rate [mil/h]
1.2 1.0 0.8
On the basis of ASTM D3702 testing, the application window for Victrex wear compounds is as shown in Figure 35. WG101 and WG102 can be used at significantly higher speeds and PV conditions than 450FC30. WG102 shows superior performance at the highest speeds tested.
0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 CA30
Figure 33 shows wear results from ASTM D3702 testing for Victrex compounds and other high performance polymers used in demanding tribological situations tested to destruction over speeds up 1200 ft/min. These results show that VICTREX WG polymers have better wear performance than other high performance materials. Figure 33: Wear rate of various Victrex materials compared to other high performance materials tested using the thrust washer method at 1m/s test speed
Figure 35: Application window for Victrex wear grades 250,000
200,000 PV level [psi-ft/min]
Wear rate [µin/h ]
300 200 100 0 PEEK 450FC30
WG101 250 psi
PAI PEEK/PBI PI Blend Wear Grade Wear Grade 500 psi
*VICTREX PEEK 450FC30 did not survive past the 250 psi test condition, the PAI wear grade did not survive past the 500 psi test condition
Speed [ft/min] WG101
Figure 36: Lpv and coefficient of friction under high speed / low load conditions for Victrex materials 0.30
0.20 300,000 0.15 200,000 0.10 100,000
Coefficient of Friction
Materials used for tribologically sensitive applications are often ranked according to their Limiting PV (Lpv). The Lpv is the maximum pressure and speed condition a material survives before exhibiting excessive wear, interfacial melting or crack growth from ploughing. Materials in critical tribological interactions may undergo either a pressure or a velocity induced failure. A pressure induced failure occurs when the loading of a sample increases to the point at which the sample undergoes fatigue crack growth from an asperity removal. A velocity induced failure occurs at the point when the relative motion between surfaces is such that thermal work at the material interface is sufficient to catastrophically increase the wear rate.
Limiting PV [psi-ft/min]
LIMITING PRESSURE AND VELOCITY
0 PEEK CA30
PEEK FC30 / FW30
WG101 / WG102
Coefficient of Friction µ
Automotive wear test scenarios include applications where high loads are expected with relatively low speeds (such as thrust washers) as well as ones were high speeds are expected with relatively low loads (such as dynamic seals). Under the same PV conditions, thrust washers take higher loads but rotate much slower than dynamic seals. Testing was carried out with a modified ASTM D3702 thrust washer geometry to obtain Lpv data at low speeds / high loads and high speeds / low loads. At low speeds / high loads, all materials tested survived beyond 2900 psi load 140 ft/min speed. Premium wear grades (WG101 and WG102) showed significantly lower coefficients of friction and counterface temperatures than standard Victrex wear materials (150FW30 and 450FC30). At high speeds / low loads, the compounds showed three different performance categories (with the same ranking as the ASTM G137 block-on-ring test from Figures 30 and 31), see Figure 36. All samples failed when counterface temperatures exceeded 570°F. Carbon-fiber reinforced, without wear additives (450CA30 and HT 22CA30), have low Lpv (under 200,000 psi) with high coefficient of friction (0.25).
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer replaces iron in design of gears used in balance shaft modules to deliver durability, reliability and improve efficiency.
Standard wear grades (150FW30 and 450FC30) have higher Lpv 170,000 - 260,000 psi ft/min with lower coefficient of friction (0.20). Premium wear grades (WG101, WG102) have significantly improved Lpv 1450-2600 psi ft/min with much lower coefficients of friction (0.05-0.15). WG102 survived beyond the maximum load / speed combination in this test.
VICTREX® HT™ polymer replaced metal with fluoropolymer coatings in printer split finger eliminating the need for secondary processing providing high temperature performance in a tribological environment.
E N V I R O N M E N TA L R E S I S TA N C E Victrex polymers exhibit excellent all-round environmental resistance which is retained at elevated temperatures. This means that they can be used to form components which are used in highly aggressive environments such as those in down-hole oil and gas applications or in parts which are exposed to repeated steam sterilization.
HYDROLYSIS RESISTANCE Victrex high performance polymers are not attacked by prolonged exposure to water, sea water or steam which makes them an ideal choice for use in applications such as medical components, subsea equipment, and valve components. Selected for its ability to withstand the high temperatures of the sterilization process and for its abrasion resistance, VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer replaces stainless steel valves and housings in beverage bottling machines.
Retention of Tensile Strength [%]
Figure 37: Retention of tensile strength of PEEK as a function of time in water at 167°F, sea water at 212°F and steam at 392°F and 203 psi pressure 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 Sea Water 212˚F 672h
Water 165˚F 1440h
Steam 390˚F 2000h
GAS AND LIQUID PERMEATION
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer is used as a high-performance liner for wear resistant production tubing in the oil and gas industry due to its resistance to chemicals and gas permeation.
PEEK provides an effective barrier to the permeation of fluids and gasses. The solubility of fluids and gasses, the diffusion through and the permeation from PEEK polymer are up to several orders of magnitude lower than other commonly used polymers. Although there is increased polymer chain movement with increased temperature the solubility of gasses remains almost constant with increasing temperature and there is little change in any of the permeation parameters as the glass transition temperature is exceeded. Furthermore, the effect of high pressure is minimal: for example a 100-fold increase in pressure produces only a 10-fold increase in permeation rate. The low solubility of various fluids and gases in PEEK combined with its high modulus ensures that it is not susceptible to the effects of rapid gas decompression.
Table 3: Permeation rates of various common gases through 100µm crystalline PEEK film.
Figure 38: Retention of tensile strength of PEEK 450G after 4 weeks immersion in a range of chemical species Retention of Tensile Strength [%]
Permeation Rate cm3m-2day-1
Extensive studies of the permeation of gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through PEEK pipes have shown that PEEK provides superior barrier properties compared to other high performance polymers as shown in Table 4.
100 80 60 40 20
F) 3˚ N H
0 39 l(
) ˚F (2
) ˚F 60
˚ 60 (2
l* e H ne ro ile ne no en aO le it r ha yd ha os y t N n k t r e X S e to % Ke M om ce 50 A or l h ic D
*Skydrol is a registered trademark of Solutia Inc.
Table 4: Comparative permeation data for PEEK and other high performance polymers
Temperature Permeation (˚F) coefficient Q (cm2s-1atm-1)
Diffusion coefficient D (cm2s-1)
6.5 x 10
1.3 x 10
6.2 x 10
1.2 x 10
1.3 x 10
6.6 x 10
Not available -6
0.8 x 10
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE VICTREX PEEK is widely regarded as having excellent resistance to a very wide range of chemical species over a range of temperatures, retaining high levels of mechanical properties and generally with little swelling or discoloration. As an indication of this broad chemical resistance, Figure 38 shows the retention of tensile strength for PEEK 450G after 28 days immersion in a range of chemicals at various temperatures.
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer used in patented PEEK-SEP membrane technology for the purification of natural gas, VOC abatement and filtration of aggressive solvents in demanding separation applications.
A current chemical resistance list is available for download from our website www.victrex.com
Thermoplastic materials exposed to electromagnetic or particle based ionising radiation can become brittle. Due to the energetically stable chemical structure of Victrex materials, components can successfully operate in, or be repeatedly sterilised by, high doses of ionising radiation. A comparative bar chart of PEEK 450G and other high performance polymers is shown in Figure 39, where the recorded dose is at the point at which a slight reduction in flexural properties is observed. The data shows that Victrex materials have greater resistance to radiation damage than other high performance polymers.
Victrex materials are inherently pure with very small amounts of low molecular weight volatile organics. Table 5 shows data generated in accordance with ASTM E595. Victrex materials were heated to 255°F for 24h under a vacuum of 5x10-5 Torr. All values are expressed as a percentage of the weight of the test sample. ASTM E595 specifies acceptable limits for TML as 1.0% maximum and for CVCM 0.1% maximum. Table 5: Outgassing characteristics of various Victrex materials
Figure 39: The oxidative gamma radiation dose at which a slight deterioration of flexural properties occurs
Gamma Dose [Rads]
10 9 10
TML (total mass loss) – is the total mass of material that is outgassed from the test sample when maintained at a specific temperature for a specific time. 2 CVCM (collected volatile condensable material) – is the quantity of outgassed matter from the test sample which is condensed and collected at a given temperature and time. 3 WVR (water vapor regained) – is the mass of water regained by the test sample after conditioning at 50% relative humidity at 73°F for 24 hours.
10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3
y e e id ox on im lic Ep i y l S Po
PC e Ph
ta ce A
VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer provides optimum dimensional stability and purity for wafer contact components in Front Opening Unified Pod (FOUP) silicon wafer technology.
A P P R O VA L S A N D S P E C I F I C AT I O N S Victrex materials are used extensively across a broad spectrum of applications including aerospace (commercial and defense), automotive, marine, industrial and energy (fossil fuel and renewable), where end-user approval is necessary to confirm compliance of the finished product to the end-users own standard or an international market sector standard. Specifications are met at various industry leaders such as Airbus, Boeing, Daimler AG and Bosch. Table 6 summarizes a number of important global approvals that Victrex materials meet.
Table 6: Summary of global approvals met by Victrex materials
WATER CONTACT WRAS - (BS 6920)
DVGW - (W270)
VICTREX PEEK 450G, 450GL30, 450CA30 and 450FC30 meet the WRAS, (Water Regulations Advisory Scheme) - effects on water quality to BS 6920 for non-metallics being suitable for contact with, and for the manufacture of components of water fittings for use in contact with cold and hot water up to 185°F for domestic purposes.
The management system of Victrex Manufacturing Ltd has been assessed and certified to ISO 9001:2008 for the design, manufacture and sale of high performance polyketones.
Victrex polymers are exempt from the REACH registration requirements. Monomers used in the polymer manufacture have been pre-registered in accordance with the requirements of REACH. To the best of our knowledge at this time, Victrex products do not contain any SVHC's(substance of very high concern) >0.1%w/w. It is our policy to monitor all new and existing suppliers to ensure we do not supply material containing substances of very high concern >0.1%w/w.
VICTREX PEEK, VICTREX HT, VICTREX ST and Compounds conform to the requirements of Directive 2002/95/EC (27th January 2003) on RoHS-(the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment).
VICTREX PEEK, VICTREX HT, VICTREX ST and Compounds conform to the requirements of Directive 2000/53/EC for ELV-(end of life vehicles). Covering vehicles and end-of life vehicles, including their components and materials.
Victrex materials, in conjunction with the Directive for RoHS, conform to the requirements of the European Directive 2002-96-EC for WEEE(waste electrical and electronic equipment).
FM 4910 Approval
VICTREX PEEK-unfilled conforms to the requirements of the American National Standard for Cleanroom Materials Flammability Test Protocol, ANSI/FM 4910. FM 4910 was developed to meet the need in the semiconductor industry for fire-safe materials.
VICTREX PEEK has been approved to the MITI(Ministry of Trade and Industry).
VICTREX PEEK-unreinforced, GL30, CA30 and FC30 meet the DVGW-(German Association of Gas and Water), standard W270 for microbial enhancement on materials to come into contact with drinking water – testing and assessment.
FOOD CONTACT 2002/72/EC
VICTREX PEEK - unfilled, unfilled black 903, GLxx, GLxx Blk, and VICTREX HT-unfilled comply with the regulations of the European Commission Directive 2002/72/EC and subsequent amendments up to 975/2009, and including the regulation (EC) No 1935/2004, both in their relevant versions on materials and articles intended to come into contact with food (note "xx" denotes addition level of filler).
FDA 21 CFR 177.2415 VICTREX PEEK - unfilled, unfilled black 903 GLxx, GLxx Blk, CAxx, FE20, FW30, and VICTREX HTunfilled comply with the compositional requirements of the regulations for plastics for food contact FDA 21 CFR 177.2415, of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States of America. 3A Sanitary Standard for Multiple Use Plastic Materials
VICTREX PEEK unfilled (all grades based on 90, 150, 380 and 450 viscosities), APTIV 1000 and 2000 Series extruded films, and VICOTE 700 Series milled powders.
VICTREX PAEK polymers and compounds conform to the general requirements of UL (Underwriters Laboratory) Flammability Standard UL94. Grade specific details are available upon request from Victrex plc or through the UL website under reference QMFZ2.E161131.
Environmental Policy Victrex has an environmental policy and operates to an operating permit (reference number BU5640IA) issued and audited by the UK Environment Agency. We also have an internal environmental management system which is audited as part of our ISO 9001:2008 registration.
Victrex Polymer Solutions is constantly exploring new applications for our PAEK-based products, which is continuously increasing the number of approvals and specifications for our products.
Please contact your local Victrex office or inquire via our website. www.victrex.com 19
Asia Pacific Victrex Japan Inc Hanai Building 6F 1-2-9 Shiba-Kouen Minato-ku Tokyo 105-0011 Japan Tel: + (81) 35777 8737 Fax: + (81) 35777 8738 Email: [email protected]
Asia Pacific Victrex High Performance Materials (Shanghai) Co Ltd Part B Building G No. 1688 Zhuanxing Road Xinzhuang Industry Park Shanghai 201108 China Tel: + (86) 21-6113 6900 Fax: + (86) 21-6113 6901 Email: [email protected]
VICTREX PLC BELIEVES THAT THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS BROCHURE IS AN ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OF THE TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND/OR USES OF THE PRODUCT OR PRODUCTS, BUT IT IS THE CUSTOMER'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THOROUGHLY TEST THE PRODUCT IN EACH SPECIFIC APPLICATION TO DETERMINE ITS PERFORMANCE, EFFICACY AND SAFETY FOR EACH END-USE PRODUCT, DEVICE OR OTHER APPLICATION. SUGGESTIONS OF USES SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN AS INDUCEMENTS TO INFRINGE ANY PARTICULAR PATENT. THE INFORMATION AND DATA CONTAINED HEREIN ARE BASED ON INFORMATION WE BELIEVE RELIABLE. MENTION OF A PRODUCT IN THIS DOCUMENTATION IS NOT A GUARANTEE OF AVAILABILITY. VICTREX PLC RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MODIFY PRODUCTS, SPECIFICATIONS AND/OR PACKAGING AS PART OF A CONTINUOUS PROGRAM OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. VICTREX® IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF VICTREX MANUFACTURING LIMITED. PEEK™, APTIV™, PEEK-ESD™, HT™, ST™ AND WG™ ARE TRADEMARKS OF VICTREX PLC. VICOTE® IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF VICTREX PLC. VICTREX PLC MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING,WITHOUT LIMITATION, AWARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY NON-INFRINGEMENT, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO PATENT NON-INFRINGEMENT, WHICH ARE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IN FACT OR BY LAW. FURTHER, VICTREX PLC MAKES NO WARRANTY TO YOUR CUSTOMERS OR AGENTS, AND HAS NOT AUTHORIZED ANYONE TO MAKE ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OTHER THAN AS PROVIDED ABOVE. VICTREX PLC SHALL IN NO EVENT BE LIABLE FOR ANY GENERAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, INCIDENTAL OR SIMILAR DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR HARM TO BUSINESS, LOST PROFITS OR LOST SAVINGS, EVEN IF VICTREX HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION.
World Headquarters Victrex plc Hillhouse International Thornton Cleveleys Lancashire FY5 4QD United Kingdom Tel: + (44) 1253 897700 Fax: + (44) 1253 897701 Email: [email protected]
Victrex Polymer Solutions, a division of Victrex plc, is the world’s leading manufacturer of Polyaryletherketones, high performance polymers, which are sold under the brand names VICTREX® PEEK™ polymer, VICOTE® Coatings, and APTIV™ films. With production facilities in the UK backed by sales and distribution centres serving more than 30 countries worldwide, our global market development, sales, and technical support services work hand-in-hand with OEMs, designers and processors offering assistance in the areas of processing, design and application development to help them achieve new levels of cost savings, quality, and performance.
Materials Properties Guide
Materials Properties Guide
With over 30 years of focus and experience Victrex Polymer Solutions, a division of Victrex plc, is the world’s leading m...
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