Study of The Physical Properties of Some Semiconductor Materials. Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement of the Master Degree in Science (Solid State Physics) To Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University By
Amira Ali Abdel-Wahab B. Sc. in Physics, 2007
Study the Physical Properties of Some Semiconductor Materials. Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement of the Master Degree in Science (Solid State Physics) To Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University By
Amira Ali Abdel-Wahab B. Sc. in Physics, 2007
Supervisors: Prof. Dr. Abdel-Rahman-Abdel-El-Mongy. Head of Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.
Assist.Prof. Dr. Hatem Hassan Amer. Solid States and Electrons Accelerator Department,National Researches Center For Radiation and Technology Atomic Energy Authority.
Assist.Prof.Dr.Yasser El-Gendy. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan Univerity.
Study of the Physical Properties of Some Semiconductor Materials. Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement of the Master Degree in Science (Solid State Physics) To Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University By
Amira Ali Abdel-Wahab B. Sc. in Physics, 2007
Examiners: Prof. Dr. Sayed Mohamed El-Araby. Chairman of Atomic Energy Authority.Cairo Chairman of Nuclear Researches Center-Anshas.
Prof. Dr. Mohmed Mohamed El-Ocker. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Azher University.
Assist .Prof. Dr. Hatem Hassan Amer. Solid States and Electrons Accelerator Department,National Researches Center For Radiation and Technology Atomic Energy Authority. Prof. Dr. Prof. Dr. Abdel-Rahman-Abdel-El-Mongy. Head of Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.
To my beloved husband, And to my beautiful future baby, To my great father, To my loving mother, To my supportive brothers and sisters,
Contents List of Figures .................................................................................iv List of Tables...................................................................................vi List of Symbols................................................................................ viii Acknowledgment ............................................................................xi Abstract ........................................................................................... xiii Summary ......................................................................................... xv Chapter I Introduction and Literature Survey ...........................1 1.1. Introduction .............................................................................1 1.2. Literature Survey ................................................................ 4 1.3. Aim of the Work
15 Chapter II Theoretical Background ............................................. 2.1. Disordered systems ................................................................15 2.2. The Chalcogenide Glasses ...................................................... 15 2.3. Electronics Band Structure and Defects ............................... 16 2.3.1. Types of Defects ................................................................ 20 2.4. Thin Film Growth Process ..................................................... 23 2.5. Optical Properties of Amorphous Materials ........................ 26 2.5.1. Optical Absorption Mechanisms ........................................ 27 2.5.2. Absorption Edge ................................................................ 30 2.6. The Electrical Properties of Chalcogenide Glasses.............. 33 2.7. Switching in Alloys Glasses .................................................... 35 2.8. Radiation Sources ................................................................ 37 2.8.1. Gamma Radiation ................................................................ 37
2.8.2. Interaction Of Gamma Radiation with Matter ................. 38 2.9. Radiation Effects on Solids ..................................................... 41 2.9.1. Defect Production by Gamma – Rays ................................ 43 Chapter III Experimental Techniques ......................................... 44 3.1. Preparation of Bulk compositions ......................................... 44 3.2. Preparation of Thin Films ...................................................... 47 3.3. Methods for Thin Film Thickness Measurment................... 50 3.3.1. Quartz crystal thickness monitor technique ...................... 51 3.4. Density Determination ............................................................ 52 3.5. Structure Measurements ........................................................ 53 3.6. Optical Measurements ............................................................ 60 3.7. Electrical Measurements ........................................................ 61 3.8. Spectrophotometer Measurements ........................................ 68 3.9. Gamma Irradiation Source .................................................... 70 Chapter IV Results & Discussion ................................................. 72 4.1. X-ray Diffraction Identification of Bulk Samples ................ 72 4.2. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)............................... 73 4.2.1. Scanning electron microscope technique ........................... 76 4.3. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) ................................ 78 4.4. The Density dependence of (In) content ................................ 79 4.5. The Effect of In Content on Conductivity ............................ 82 87 4.6.Switching Characteristics of Amorphous Semiconductor………………………………………………… 89 4.6.1.Temperature dependence of Switching Characteristics………………………………………………..
4.7. Theoretical Study of I-V Characteristics of Switching ........ 92 4.7.1. The Suggested Switching Model ......................................... 95 4.8. Optical Band Gap of In-Se-Sn-Bi Thin Films ...................... 97 102 4.9. Thermal and Radiation–induced defects in thin film devices ............................................................................................. 4.10. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on Optical Band Gap ......... 102 4.10.1. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on Threshold Switches…………………………….
4.11. Modern Applications of InxSn20Se60-xBi20 ............................ 103 4.12. Trends for Future Work ....................................................... 105 Chapter V Summary and Conclusion .......................................... 107 References ....................................................................................... 111 List of Publications ......................................................................... 120
List of Figures
List of Figures Figure No.
Showing bonding in (a) Ge and (b) Se………….…….………
Shows various forms proposed for the density of states in amorphous semiconductors. The shaded areas represent 19 localized states ………………………………….……………
Formation of charged defects (valence alternation pairs) in 21 chalcogenide glasses………………………………………….
Basic growth processes:(a) island, (b) layer-by- layer, and (c) 26 Stranski-Krastanov type …………………………...…………
Absorption spectrum of thin film ……………………………
Optical inter band transitions……………………...………….
Parts A, B, C of the absorption edge……………….…………
Current – Voltage characteristic curve (I-V) of switch Ih 35 denote current …………………………………………………
Dynamic (I-V) characteristic curve for thin film of amorphous 36 semiconductor (Memoryswitch)………………………………..
(2-10) The interaction of gamma rays with matter probabilities …….
Mechanism of the interaction of gamma rays with matter 40 probabilities……………………….…………….....................
Silica tubes used for bulk amorphoussemiconductors preparation
Design flow chart for Preparation of bulk amorphous 46 InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 …………………………………………….
a) Schematic diagram b) captured photo Vacuum coating unit.
Design flow chart for Preparation of InxSn20Se(60-x )Bi20 Films
The copper mask designed for E-306A ……….………………
Thicknesses monitor (TM-200)……………………………….
X-ray diffractmeter, "Shimadzu XRD-6000"………………..
List of Figures
Typical DTA thermo gram illustrating the definition of the 56 different transition temperature Differential thermal analysis…
Captured photo of Differential Thermal Analysis…………..…
( 3-10) Principle diagram of Differential thermal analysis…………….
(3-11) Design flow chart for DTA thin film Preparation……………… 59 (3-12) AJEOL-5400 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with (EDX)
Construction used for controlling the temperature of the sample (3-15) in the Range from room Block diagram of the circuit used for 62 measuring electrical Conductivity.......................................... (3-16)
Block diagram of the circuit used for measuring electrical 64 Conductivity…………………………………………………….
Design flow for Preparation of thin film amorphous 66 InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 for switching…………………….……….
(3-18) A special cell construction for I-V measurements……………...
(3-19) A Simple Circuit used for measuring I-V characteristics D.C…
(3-20) SP8 -200 Optical Diagrams…………………………………….
(3-21) J6500 Irradiator…………………………………..…………….
X-Ray Diffraction patterns of bulk sample of the system 72 InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20, (where x=0,0.1,0.2 and 0.3at.%) …………..
EDX qualitative analysis for InxSn20Se (60-x) Bi20 (where 74 x=0.1%)…………………..……………………………...…….
A SEM photograph of Sn20Se(60-x)Bi20…………………………
DTA measurements for In XSn20Se 60-x Bi20 glasses heating rate 79 10c/min………………………………………….…….………..
List of Figures
Dependence of density on In content in the system InxSn20Se6080 xBi20 (with x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3)…………………………………
Variation of ln (σ) vs reciprocal absolute temperature for films of Inx Sn20 Se(60-x)Bi20 where x= 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 %at 84 constant thickness 100nm……………………………………..
Variation of σ as a function of In content…………………….
Variation of of σ as a function of activation energy…………..
Variation of activation energy and cohesive energy as a 86 function of In content…………….. ……………………………
I-V Characteristics of D.C switching For the FilmsInxSn20 Se(6089 x)Bi20 at thickness 100nm………………………………..……..
Statics I-V Characteristics curves For x=0, 0.3at.% thin film 90 sample at thickness 100 nm at different ambient temperature T
(4-13) Relation between rise time and cohesive energy………………
Transmission spectra of InxSn2Se(6-X)Bi2 thin film (where x=0, 97 0.1 ,0.2 and0.3 at %)……………….…………………………
Absorption coefficient (α) versus photon energy (hυ) for the 98 Inx Sn20 Se(60-x)Bi20thin film…………………………………..
Best fit of (αhυ)1/2 versus photon energy(hυ) plots for the 99 InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20thin films…………...………………………
The variation in the optical band gap (E0 ) as function of In 100 content of the InxSn20Se(60-x) Bi20thin films…………………….
List of Tables
List of Tables Table
(4-1) The composition dependence of density………………………
Shows values of the optical band gap, density, coordination (4-2)
number, heat of atomization (Hs), bond energy and electro negativities of Sn, Bi, Se and In respectively which are used
for calculations…………...…………………………………… The average coordination number (Nco) and the constraints (4-3) number (Ns) as function of In content of InxSn20Se
glasses…………………………...……………………………. Compositional dependence of the electrical characteristic (4-4)
quantities for the thin film glasses in the system InxSn20Se(60x)Bi20 where x= 0 , 0.1 , 0.2 and 0.3 at constant thickness
100nm………………….……………………………………… Switching characteristics of the composition InxSn20 Se(60(4-5)
where x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% at constant thickness 89
100nm…………………………………………………………. Values of filament temperature at Vs and after switching as calculated
(4-6) corresponding values of current for samples of the 92 composition Inx Sn20Se(60-x) Bi20 where x= 0, 0.3 at thickness 100 nm…………………………………………………………
List of Tables
Values of rise time and cohesive energy for samples of the (4-7) composition
0.3at.%)……………………………………………………… Bond energy probabilities and relative probabilities of (4-8) formation of various bonds in Inx Sn20 Se
taking the probability of Sn-Se bond as unity…………...…….
Acknowledgment First and last thanks to Allah who gives me the power to go forward in a way illuminated with His merciful guidance.
I would like to express my thanks to Prof. Dr. H. H. Amer, Solid State Department, National Center For Radiation Research and Technology, for giving me the chance to be one of his students and for his generous advices, valuable discussions which helped me greatly, and the good proof reading of this thesis. He did not only guide this work and devote time to discuss it with me but also gave me the confidence to express my ideas freely.
I will always remember how his ideas and suggestions always work and how he could simply pick the small mistakes. Actually he was more than a supervisor; he was a teacher who inspired me and pushed me forward. I am thankful to Prof. Dr. A. Rahman AbdelMongy, Head of Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, for his help, encouragements and valuable advice.I would also like to express my thanks to Dr. Yasser Mohamed El-Gendy, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, for his adequate reading of the thesis, worthy discussions and his kind assistance.
I am so grateful to Prof. Dr Rizk abdel Moniem Rizk, Dean of Faculty of Science, Helwan University, for his continuous help, encouragement and facilities.
I am thankful to all staff members and colleagues, Solid State Department, National Center For Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority for their support and appreciated help.
I would also like to thank my Colleagues in the Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University for their help.
Special thanks to my best friends, Hanaa Selim Ali and Doaa Gamal and Soraya Mohamed for their warm encouragement, continuous assistance and advice.
Abstract Chalcogenide glasses are a recognized group of inorganic glassy materials which always contain one or more of the chalcogenide elements S, Se or Te but not O, in conjunction with more electro positive elements as As, Sb, etc. Chalcogenide glasses are generally less robust, more weakly bonded materials than oxide glasses. Glasses were prepared from Sn, Se, Bi and In elements with purity 99.999 %. These glasses are reactive at high temperature with oxygen. Therefore, synthesis was accomplished in evacuated clean silica tubes. The tubes were washed by distilled water, and then dried in a furnace whose temperature was about 100°C. The weighted materials were introduced into the cleaned silica tubes and then evacuated to about 10-4 torr and sealed. The sealed tubes were placed inside the furnace and the temperature of the furnace was raised gradually up to 900°C within 1 hour and kept constant for 10 hours. Moreover, shaking of the constituent materials inside the tube in the furnace was necessary for realizing the homogeneity of the composition. After synthesis, the tube was quenched into ice water. The glassy ingots could be obtained by drastic quenching. Then materials were removed from the tubes and kept in dry atmosphere. The proper ingots were confirmed to be completely amorphous using x-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis.
Thin films of the selected compositions were prepared by thermal evaporation technique with constant thickness 100nm. The effect of radiation, optical and some other effects on composition was studied. The structural properties of Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 amorphous semiconductor in the powder and thermally evaporated thin films have been investigated. Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, for InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 in the powder form showed that an endothermic peak in the DTA curve results from an increase in specific heat at the glass transition temperature Tg. The absence of any sharp exothermic peak in the DTA curve is good indicator for absence of the structural changes. The analysis of X-Rays Diffraction Patterns (XRD) of Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 in the powder form confirmed amorphous state. Scanning electron microscope SEM micrographs were made for SeBi-Sn films deposited at room temperature. The film consisted of individual grains, which are irregular in size and shape and separated by well-defined inter-grain boundaries. By adding In, further separation of the surrounding media gives rise to large grains in size at x=0.1 at%. Then large grains can be seen for partially crystalline at x=0.2 at % the grain sizes become smaller for x=0.3 at% and the number of grains become larger. The density of the as prepared glasses of the system Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 films has been determined by the hydrostatic method with an accuracy of ± 0.05 %. It has been noticed that the density decreases by increasing In from 5.712 gm/cm3 for the composition Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20
at x=0% to 4.682 gm/cm3 for composition InxSn20Se(60x)Bi20 at x=0.03%. The optical properties of Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 have been characterized by the measurements of the transmittance and reflectance in the wave length 200 – 1100 nm for the deposited films. The type of the electronic transition responsible for optical properties is indirect allowed transition with transport and onset energy gap in the range 0.79 – 1.7 eV. The values of the optical energy gap Eopt were found to decrease with increasing In content which could be due to the fact that In has a metallic behaviour. The absorption spectra of Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 is recorded in the UV region. Some important parameters such as coordination number Nco , the number of constraints NS, the parameter r determined the deviation of Stoichiometry. If there is a linear dependence between the bond strength and the average band gap, and if one allows their superposition to describe the compounds, then the addition of In will affect the average band gap. By increasing the In content, the average bond strength of the compound decreases, and hence Eg will decrease. In order to emphasize the relationship between Eg and the average bond strength more clearly, Eg is compared with HS/Nco which is the average single-bond energy in the alloy. The electrical properties of Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 alloys include the measurements of DC conductivity for InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 films and the measurements of switching.
The DC conductivity of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 thin films has been measured as function of temperature. The dependence of the electrical DC conductivity on the temperature showed the existence of two distinct linear regions with two activation energies ∆E1 and ∆E2. The switching measurements have been made for InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 thin films and the addition of In has led to an increase in both the threshold voltage (Vs) and threshold current (Is) from 1.5 volt and 1.0 µA respectively at x=0 up to 5.5 volt and 2 µA respectively at x=0.3 for constant film thickness d=100 nm. As for the holding voltage (Vh), it was found to increase with the increase of In content from 0.4 volt at x=0 to 2.0 volt at x=0.3. On the contrary, the increase of In content has caused a decrease in the holding current (Ih) from 45 µA at x=0 to 19 µA at x=0.3 for a constant thickness 100 nm. It was proved that the threshold power increased by increasing In content. This means that the quality of switching is reduced by increasing the In content. The addition of In content increases the cohesive energy and consequently affects the switching properties. Raising the film temperature improved the switching characteristics where the threshold voltage decreased and the threshold current increases. Also, the addition of In reduced the filament temperature, thus reducing the switching ability. Increasing the In content from x=0 to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 led to an increase in the switching rise time from tr = 25 to 40, 100 and 200 nano second respectively and a decrease in the cohesive energy from C.E. = 2.8186 to 2.8192, 2.8199 and 2.820 eV respectively. These results indicate that composition Inx
Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 shows good electrical threshold switching results and promises a useful threshold switching device in computer applications. Finally, the study of effect of gamma rays on the Inx Sn20 Se (60-x) Bi20 showed that the gamma radiation did n’t have a noticeable effect, for a dose of 15MRad showed a constant value in the transmittance upon the addition of In.
Summary The subject of amorphous semiconductors (a-S.C.) has been of great interest in the recent years and it is considered a particularly active field in solid state science. In the last decade, considerable attention has been focused on a-S.C. especially those known as chalcogenide glasses. Their structure is investigated by X-ray Diffraction and their amorphous nature is confirmed by the Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). They are characterized by their sensitivity to light, thus leading to structural or optical changes. The study of the optical parameters, e.g. the absorption coefficient, provides information about the band structure and energy gap in the material. Memory switching is also a phenomenon that is observed in a-S.C. The technological importance of the S.C. chalcogenide glasses is not only due to its valuable technological applications in modern devices, but also because of its cheapness in relative with other S.C. materials. Their applications in modern technology comprise energy management, thermal fault detection, temperature monitoring and night vision. They are selected for switches, memory and computer applications due to their favorable switching characteristics. Moreover, they are applied in film transistors and electrographic units. An interesting application of a-S.C is in the fabrication of sensors for environmental protection and medical diagnosis. Also, optical fibers are made from chalcogenide a-S.C. and these are commonly used in telecommunication systems, illumination and imaging optics. Optical fibers have become the focus of researchers due to their potential use in ultra-fast switching devices and surgical purposes. Also, such a-S.C. compete favorably with silicon devices for solar power conversion as they are less expensive, thus they have recently been used to manufacture solar cells. Since a-S.C. are characterized by their sensitivity to
Summary external factors, especially ionizing radiation, they are used for radiation dosimetry and as radiation detectors. Chalcogenide glasses are a recognized group of inorganic glassy materials which always contain one or more of the chalcogenide elements S, Se or Te but not O, in conjuction with more electro positive elements as As, Sb, etc. Chalcogenide glasses are generally less robust, more weakly bonded materials than oxide glasses. Glasses were prepared from Sn, Se, Bi and In elements with purity 99.999%. These glasses are reactive at high temperature with oxygen. Therefore, synthesis was accomplished in evacuated clean silica tubes. The tubes were washed by distilled water, and then dried in a furnace whose temperature was about 100°C. The weighted materials were introduced into the cleaned silica tubes and then evacuated to about 10-4 torr and sealed. The sealed tubes were placed inside the furnace and the temperature of the furnace was raised gradually up to 900°C within 1 hour and kept constant for 10 hours. Moreover, shaking of the constituent materials inside the tube in the furnace was necessary for realizing the homogeneity of the composition. After synthesis, the tube was quenched into ice water. The glassy ingots could be obtained by drastic quenching. Then materials were removed from the tubes and kept in dry atmosphere. Thin films of the selected compositions were prepared by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum 10-4 torr with constant thickness 100 nm. The structural properties of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 amorphous semiconductor in the powder and thermally evaporated thin films have been investigated. Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, for InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 in the
Summary powder form showed that an endothermic peak in the DTA curve results from an increase in specific heat at the glass transition temperature Tg. The absence of any sharp exothermic peak in the DTA curve is good indicator for absence of the structural changes. The analysis of X-Rays Diffraction Patterns (XRD) of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 in the powder form confirmed amorphous state. Scanning electron microscope SEM micrographs were made for SeBi-Sn films deposited at room temperature. The film consisted of individual grains, which are irregular in size and shape and separated by well-defined inter-grain boundaries. By adding In, further separation of the surrounding media gives rise to large grains in size at x=0.1 at%. Then large grains can be seen for partially crystalline at x=0.2 at% the grain sizes become smaller for x=0.3 at% and the number of grains become larger. The density of the as prepared glasses of the system InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 films has been determined by the hydrostatic method with an accuracy of ± 0.05 %. It has been noticed that the density decreases by increasing In from 5.712 gm/cm3 for the composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 at x=0% to 4.682 gm/cm3 for composition InxSn20Se(60x)Bi20 at x=0.03%. The optical properties of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 have been characterized by the measurements of the transmittance and reflectance in the wave length 200 – 1100 nm for the deposited films. The type of the electronic transition responsible for optical properties is indirect allowed transition with transport and onset energy gap in the range 0.79 – 1.7 eV. The values of the optical energy gap Eopt were found to decrease with increasing In content which could be due to the fact that In has a metallic behaviour.
Summary The absorption spectra of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 is recorded in the UV region. Some important parameters such as coordination number Nc o , the number of constraints (NS) , the parameter (r) determined the deviation of Stoichiometry. If there is a linear dependence between the bond strength and the average band gap, and if one allows their superposition to describe the compounds, then the addition of In will affect the average band gap. By increasing the In content, the average bond strength of the compound decreases, and hence Eg will decrease. In order to emphasize the relationship between Eg and the average bond strength more clearly, Eg is compared with HS/Nco which is the average single-bond energy in the alloy. The electrical properties of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 alloys include the measurements of DC conductivity for InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 films and the measurements of switching. The DC conductivity of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 thin films has been measured as function of temperature. The dependence of the electrical DC conductivity on the temperature showed the existence of two distinct linear regions with two activation energies ∆E1 and ∆E2. The switching measurements have been made for InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 thin films and the addition of In has led to an increase in both the threshold voltage (Vs) and threshold current (Is) from 1.5 volt and 1.0 µA respectively at x=0 up to 5.5 volt and 2 µA respectively at x=0.3 for constant film thickness d=100 nm. As for the holding voltage (Vh), it was found to increase with the increase of In content from 0.4 volt at x=0 to 2.0 volt at x=0.3. On the contrary, the increase of In content has caused a decrease in the holding current (Ih) from 45 µA at x=0 to 19 µA at x=0.3 for a constant thickness 100 nm. It was proved that the threshold power increased by increasing In content. This means that the quality of switching is reduced by
Summary increasing the In content. The addition of In content increases the cohesive energy and consequently affects the switching properties. Raising the film temperature improved the switching characteristics where the threshold voltage decreased and the threshold current increases. Also, the addition of In reduced the filament temperature, thus reducing the switching ability. Increasing the In content from x=0 to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 led to an increase in the switching rise time from tr = 25 to 40, 100 and 200 nano second respectively and a decrease in the cohesive energy from C.E. = 2.8186 to 2.8192, 2.8199 and 2.820 eV respectively. These results indicate that composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 shows good electrical threshold switching results and promises a useful threshold switching device in computer applications. Finally, the study of effect of gamma rays on the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 showed that the gamma radiation did n’t have a noticeable effect, for a dose of 15MRad showed a constant value in the transmittance upon the addition of In.
Introduction and Literature Survey
Chapter 1 Introduction and Literature Survey 1.1 Introduction Many amorphous materials can be called Semiconductor in the sense that they are neither good conductors nor good insulators, but instead they are poor conductors. Many are also similar to their crystalline counterparts in that they possess an optical gap. Amorphous Semiconductor is characterized by: 1. Their electrical properties are similar to intrinsic S.C. or perfectly compensated S.C. 2. They are partially transparent in the infrared region. 3. Their room temperature conductivities are lower than 103 - 104 Ω-1 cm-1. A major category of a-S.C. is the chalcogenide glasses. The first chalcogenide glass to be commercially developed in 1950s was As2S3, produced for passive bulk optical component for the mid-IR. During the next two decades, other sulphide and selenide-telluride glasses have been used as optical components for the far infrared which have since then been exploited commercially [1, 2]. Applications of infrared optics include energy management, thermal fault detection and electronic circuit detection, temperature monitoring and night vision . The blackbody radiation emitted by room temperature objects such as the human body in the wavelength 8–12 µm region is an example of the latter, where Se-Te based glasses are applicable for thermal imaging. Starting from
Introduction and Literature Survey
1970, chalcogenide glasses have been recognized as a stable and active electronic device component in photocopying and switching applications . Through the 1980s, attention was focused on the fabrication of ultra-low loss IR fibres for telecommunication signal transmission to compete with silica optical fibres [5, 6]. In the 1990s, the development of the optical glasses with IR transmittance for infrared purposes has been proceeding in two main directions: infrared imaging and wave guide applications. More advancement has taken place in the last decade and till present to take advantage of the space applications of a-S.C. and their application in the field of nanotechnology. Chalcogenide glasses are a recognized group of inorganic glassy materials which always contain one or more of the chalcogen elements S, Se or Te, in conjunction with more electropositive elements as As, Sb and Bi . These glasses are band gap S.C. and they are generally less robust, more weakly bonded materials than oxide glasses. Chalcogenide glassy S.C. have several useful properties that can be employed in various solid state devices. They show a continuous change in physical properties with change in chemical composition . Chalcogenide a-S.C. materials exhibit a number of interesting changes when exposed to light having a photon energy comparable to the band gap. Such changes can be structural, mechanical, chemical or optical (photodarkening and photobleaching). The light induced changes can in general be either irreversible, i.e., the changes are
Introduction and Literature Survey
permanent after irradiation, or reversible, in which case the changes can be removed by annealing to the glass transition temperature (Tg). These changes are favored in chalcogenide glasses due to their structural flexibility and also due to their high-lying lone pair (LP) p states in their valence bands . Memory switching in chalcogenide glasses has been widely reported in literature and is fairly well understood. Important device applications of switching in chalcogenides are computer memory arrays, display devices, optical mass memories…, etc. Enough evidence is available to believe that at a threshold voltage, memory switching occurs due to formation of a filamentary path which is crystalline in nature . Amorphous Semiconductor is present in three types : elemental, covalent alloys and ionic. The first category contains elements such as S and Se which can be obtained in the amorphous state. The S and Se are characterized by chain and ring structure, and a short-range order which extends over a distance, depending on temperature and thermal history of the material. The second category contains covalent bonded alloy glasses. These alloys possess compositional and translational disorders; therefore, all atoms locally satisfy their valence bond requirements. The third category contains ionic materials such as silicate glasses, which contain at least one element of the chalcogens (S, Se and Te). Impurity effects in chalcogenide glasses have importance in fabrication of glassy semiconductors. Several workers have reported the impurity effects in various chalcogenide glasses. They are interesting as core materials for optical fibers used for transmission especially when short length and flexibility are required. Since the advent of electro photography, amorphous Selenium has
Introduction and Literature Survey
become a material of commercial importance. Selenium exhibits the unique property of reversible phase transformation . Its various device applications like rectifiers, photocells, xerography, switching and memory, etc. have made it attractive, but pure selenium has disadvantages like short lifetime and low sensitivity. This problem can be overcome by alloying Se with some impurity atoms (Bi, Te, Ge, Ga, Sb, As, … etc.), which gives higher sensitivity, higher crystallization temperature and smaller ageing effects. Ag-doped chalcogenide glasses and their films have many current and potential applications in optics, optoelectronics, chemistry and biology (optical elements, gratings, memories, micro lenses, waveguides, bio- and chemical-sensors, solid electrolytes, batteries,…etc.)  The Ag-doped glasses can be used as optical memory materials and materials for holography. The sensitivity can be increased by the simultaneous application of an electrical field with light. The Ag-doped binary and ternary tellurides are becoming important because some of them are used as materials for phase-change optical storage (DVD disks, … etc). They exhibit single glass transition and single crystallization temperatures, which is important for rewritable disks.
1.2 Literature Survey Chalcogenide glasses have been recognized as promising materials for infrared optical elements  and for the transfer of information . They have also found application sin Xerography , switching and memory devices , in the fabrication of in expensive solar cells , and more recently, for reversible phase change optical records . Thus, it is important to have an insight into
Introduction and Literature Survey
their electronic properties. It has been reported that for any chalcogenide glassy system, increasing the relative atomic mass of the chalcogen or its proportion in glass diminishes the average bond strength and hence decreases the glass transition temperature . The addition of chalcogen which act as chains or network terminators tend to decrease the glass transition temperature and increase the thermal expansion coefficient . Thin film of Se1-x Tex (x=0.2, 0.4 & 0.6) deposited on a glass substrate were studied and investigated by H.ELZahed et al . Optical band gap Eg were determined from the absorbance and transmittance measurements in the visible and near IR spectral range (500-1100) nm Optical band gap Eg was found to be decreased with increasing tellurium concentration. M. A. Abdel-Rahim  reported and discussed the results of differential thermal analyses (DTA) under non isothermal conditions for three compositions of the Se(x85)Te15SbX (x=0, 3 and 9). The onset crystallization temperatures (Tc), and the peak temperature of crystallization (Tp) were found to be dependent on the compositions and the heating rates. From the dependence on heating rates of (Tg) and (Tp) the activation energy for glass transition (Et) and the activation energy for crystallization (Ec) were calculated and their composition dependence were discussed. The crystalline phases resulting from DTA have been identified using X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscope (SEM).
D.C. conductivity measurements at high electric fields in thermal vacuum evaporated thin films of amorphous Se80-x Te20Cdx (x=0, 5, 10, 15 at %) systems have been studied by S. P. Singh et al  Current-voltage
Introduction and Literature Survey
(I-V) characteristics have been measured at various fixed temperatures .They observed that, at low electric fields, the studied samples have ohmic behavior, but at high electric fields (E~104 V/cm), non ohmic behavior was observed. A. Dahshan et al .reported the effect of replacement of selenium by antimony on the optical gap and some other physical parameters of new quaternary chalcogenide As14 Ge14 Se72-xSbx (where x=3.6.9 and15 at%)thin films. thin films with thickness 200-220 nm of As14 Ge14 Se72-xSbx were prepared by thermal evaporation of bulk samples, increasing antimony content was found to affect the average of atomization, the average coordination number, number of constraints and cohesive energy of As14 Ge14 Se72-xSbx alloys. Optical absorption measurements showed that fundamental absorption edge is a function of, composition. Optical absorption is due to allowed non direct transition and the energy gap decreases with increasing antimony content. The chemical bond approach has been applied successfully to interpret the decrease in the optical gap with increasing antimony content. Thin films were thermally evaporated from ingot pieces of the As30 Se70-x Sbx (with 2.5
P. Sharma et al  were studied the optical properties of Se substituted by Bi in Ge20Se80 thin films. Optical reflection and transmission spectra, at normal
Introduction and Literature Survey
incidence of Ge20 Se80-x Bix thin films (x=0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) were obtained in the range 200nm-840nm.The optical energy gap was estimated from the absorption coefficient values using Tauc's procedure. It is found that the optical band gap decreases with increasing Bismuth content.
Glasses based on selenium and tellurium were carefully characterized to establish the interdependence between chemical composition and the magnitudes of the physical parameters. Optical measurements were performed on thin amorphous chalcogenide films from the system of pure (Se0.8Te0.2) and metal doped (Se0.8Te0.2)0.9M0.1 (M= Cu, Ag and Sn) by A. F. Maged et al . Parameters considered are density, molar volume, the concentrations of metal atoms per unit volume, and optical energy gap. Bulk Se0.8Te0.2 alloy was prepared by the standard melt quenching technique and the different metals were added to the binary system using the same technique. Thin films of the prepared compositions was grown using thermal evaporation method. The effects of different metallic additions and annealing at a temperature below the glass transition temperature Tg on the optical characteristics was explored. The bulk and thin films of the samples were tested by X-ray diffraction, which reveals that they are amorphous. The optical energy gap E0 was found to decrease with the addition of metal, the amount of decrease depends on the chemical character of added metal. Annealing leads to a decrease of the optical energy gap with annealing time. The gamma irradiation (up to 100 kGy) has no detectable effect on the optical energy gap. Amorphous Se90In10−xSnx (x=2, 4, 6 and 8) thin films of thickness 1000 Å were prepared on glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique by Adel A. Shaheen et al . Optical parameters of the films were investigated, in
Introduction and Literature Survey
the wavelength range 400–700 nm, before and after irradiation by 4, 8, and 12 kGy doses of γ-rays. The optical absorption coefficient α for as-deposited and gamma irradiated films was calculated from the reflectance R and transmittance T measurements, which were recorded at room temperature. From the knowledge of α, at different wavelengths, the optical band gap Eg was calculated for all compositions of Se–In–Sn thin films before and after gamma irradiation. Results indicate that allowed indirect optical transition is predominated in as-deposited and irradiated films. Besides, it is found that the band gap decreases with increasing Sn concentration and this is attributed to the corresponding decrease in the average single bond energy of the films. The band gap, after irradiation at different doses of γ-rays, was found to decrease for all compositions of the studied films. This post-irradiation decrease in the band gap was interpreted in terms of a bond distribution model. Gamma radiation is known to induce changes in physical, optical, and structural properties in chalcogenide glasses, but previous research has focused on As2S3 and families of glasses containing Ge. For the first time, we present composition and dose dependent data on the As–S binary glass series. Binary AsxS100−x (x = 30, 33, 36, 40, and 42) glasses were irradiated with gamma radiation using a 60 Co source at 2.8 Gy/s to accumulated doses of 1, 2, 3, and 4 MGy. The irradiated samples were characterized at each dose level for density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectrum. An initial increase has been reported in density followed by a decrease as a function of dose that contradicts the expected compositional dependence of molar volume of these glasses. This unusual behavior is explained based on micro void formation and nanoscale phase-separation induced by the irradiation. XRD, Raman, and electron spin resonance data provide
Introduction and Literature Survey
supporting evidence, underscoring the importance of optimally- or overly constrained structures for stability under irradiation . A. F. Maged et al .have Studied the effects of addition of tellurium on transition temperature, density, molar volume and optical properties for Ge-As-Se system and the effect of γ-irradiation on IR transmission for the system x=0 and x=40. Oxygen impurities, which increased after γ-irradiation, produce an absorption between 12 and 16 µm due to Ge-O, As-O and Se-O M.M.EL-Ocker et al . Investigated the effect of addition In content on dc electrical conductivity and DTA of The system (AS2Se3)1-xInx x=0,0.1,0.05 . The electrical energy gap was found to increase for an In content 0.01% and decrease for an In content 0.05%.The Samples exhibit the three conduction mechanisms proposed by Mott and Davis. The activation energy was calculated for each mechanism. The effect of heating rate on the transition temperatures (Tg,Tc,Tm) was studied and variation of the crystallization-peak position was used to calculate the activation energy and the order of the crystallization process. Chalcogenide glasses are interesting materials due to their infrared transmitting properties and photo induced effects exhibited by them. Thin films of the glasses Sn10Sb20_xBixSe70 prepared by melt quenching technique were evaporated in a vacuum better than 10_5 mbar. Optical transmissions spectra of all the deposited films were obtained in a range (400–2500) nm. The optical band gap and the absorption coefficient were calculated by Muneer Ahmad et al  from the transmission data. The optical band gap initially increases with increase in Bi content (for x = 2) and then decreases sharply for higher Bi
Introduction and Literature Survey
concentrations. The refractive index as well as absorption coefficient decrease with increase in wavelength. The dark activation energy initially increases with increase in Bi content and then decreases with further addition Chalcogenide alloys of Sn10Sb20_xBixSe70 system were prepared by the melt quenching technique .Thin films were prepared on well-cleaned glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique. The X-ray diffract gram for System reveals the amorphous nature as no sharp peak is observed but the sample with shows sharp peaks. The glass transition, crystallization, melting temperatures and glass forming tendency of the amorphous samples were determined from differential scanning calorimetric measurements. The glass transition activation energies and the crystallization activation energies were determined using the Kissinger method. Optical transmission and reflection spectra of thin films were obtained in the range400-2500nm. The conductivity activation energy and optical gap initially increases with increasing Bi concentration and then decreases sharply for higher Bi content .The values of the band tailing parameter and the pre-exponential factor are also reported and discussed by Muneer Ahmed . Both dynamic and static I–V characteristic curves of amorphous thin films of Se75Ge25−xAsx for switching and memory behavior have been studied by Fadel . The films were prepared by thermal evaporation of high purity (99.999%) material. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of amorphous films. The electrical measurements are made at room temperature and at elevated temperatures up to the glass transition temperature (Tg~418 K). The conduction activation energy, Eσ is determined. The threshold voltage, Vth is determined. It is found that Vth
Introduction and Literature Survey
increases linearly with the film thickness and decreases with As content. Moreover, Vth decreases exponentially with temperature. The rapid transition between the highly resistive and conductive states is attributed to an electro thermal mechanism from the Joule heating of a current channel. Kotkata et al. studied  the switching effects in amorphous GeSe2, GeSe4, GeSe2Tl and GeSe4Tl thin films. The observed switching phenomenon for these compositions was of the memory type. The threshold switching voltage was found to increase linearly with increasing film thickness (80–740 nm), while it decreased exponentially with increasing temperature (T < Tg). The effect of adding Thallium to both amorphous GeSe2 and amorphous GeSe4 results in decreasing the values of the threshold electric field, the activation energy of switching, as well as the thermal activation energy of conduction. The results obtained are explained in accordance with the electro thermal model of breakdown. Observations of memory switching in thin films of amorphous As2Se3 have been made at various film thicknesses by (Thornburg, 1972) . The distribution of threshold voltages for a given thickness shows a strong peak which is attributed to the intrinsic switching mechanism. A plot of the most probable threshold voltage vs film thickness shows the switching process to be field controlled. Microscopic evidence is presented for strong Joule heating caused by capacitive discharge upon filament formation. Ovshinsky and Fritzsche , reported the performance and reliability of amorphous semiconductor devices that deal with the handling of information in the
Introduction and Literature Survey
form of switching, modulation, storage, and displays. Structural changes between a disordered and a more ordered state and the concomitant large change in many material properties offer the possibility of using amorphous semiconductors for high-density information storage and high-resolution display devices. The structural changes can be initiated by various forms of energy such as an electrical pulse, a short light pulse, or a brief light exposure. Many materials show good structural reversibility. The sensitivity of an amorphous photo structural film is amplified by several orders of magnitude by first forming a latent image by photo nucleation and subsequent dry development by heat or radiation. Examples of optical contrast and resolution in image formation are given. The major differences between crystalline and amorphous semiconductors are briefly outlined. Rajesh and Philip  reported the discovery of electrical switching in chalcogenide glasses. A complete understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon is lacking. It is believed that threshold switching in chalcogenide glasses is electronic in origin whereas memory switching is of thermal origin. According to the thermal model, the on state during memory switching is caused by a thermal breakdown of the steady state of the material when the heat generated by Joule heating cannot be removed fast enough by thermal conduction. Joule heating causes crystallization of the glass into fine filaments resulting in excess carrier concentration in the current path due to the large electric field present. Even though electrical conductivity and related properties of a number of materials have been investigated during and after switching, no measurements seem to have been done to determine the variation in thermal conductivity and related properties during switching. The results of their
Introduction and Literature Survey
measurements of thermal conductivity and heat capacity of In–Te glasses were reported, which exhibit clear memory type electrical switching at threshold fields in (80–140) V cm−1 range. Measurements have been made on bulk samples using an improved photo thermal technique. Results show that thermal conductivity of the samples increase considerably during electrical switching, whereas heat capacity remains more or less constant. The results are discussed in the light of the thermal model for memory switching applicable to Te-based chalcogenide glasses. Stocker  studied the switching phenomena which take place in thick bulk samples of semiconducting glass, once a path of devitrified material is established. Potential probe and infrared micro radiometer measurements reveal that the switching action takes place in a small region somewhere along this path. Application of voltage pulses can move this region to a different position. Evidence of partial devitrification and melting is also found in thin film switches made from many different glass compositions. Memory switching has also been observed in all bulk and thin film experiments to date. Since the characteristics of bulk and thin film switching are remarkably similar, doubt is cast upon the interpretation of switching phenomena as due to electronic properties of amorphous semiconductors.
1.3 Aim of the work The theoretical survey made on various technological applications of semiconductors Known as chalcogenide glasses indicated that they have different useful properties, e.g easy to prepare, light in weight and cheap. These compositions can be used in solid state devices to produce economical chalcogenide compositions.
Introduction and Literature Survey
The study has shown that the selected composition has not been dealt with in many previous studies. Therefore, it has been chosen to prepare anew composition with different percentages of composition that have not been done before, so it can be used in the future in different electronic applications. The goal is then to use cheep and reliable materials for technological application in deriving scientists to develop application. Rectifiers, photocells, switching and memory devices, detectors and sensors, optical imaging or storage media computer, memory arrays and display devices.
Chapter 2 Theoretical Background 2.1 Disordered systems In solid-state physics disordered is very often explained through the terminology of order. Two aspects of order are important for this treatise: • Short-range order is a regular arrangement of the closest neighboring atoms. • Long-range order has a strict periodicity and translation in variance of the crystal lattice. An unperturbed and infinite lattice is ideal and considered as the zeroth approximation in the calculation of solid state properties. Perturbations can be classified as dynamic, in elementary excitations, or static as in point imperfections. A lattice is considered ordered when it is possible to explain its characteristics with an infinite lattice with ideal long-range order and with addition of perturbation theory including the dynamics and static perturbations. An arrangement is considered disordered when this approximation is not meaningful.
2.2 The Chalcogenide Glasses The properties of amorphous semiconductor containing one or more of the chalcogenide elements S, Se or Te are reviewed [41-55].
It is possible to form glasses by combination with one or more of the elements As, Ge ,Si ,Tl ,Pb ,P ,Sb and Bi , among others. The binary chalcogenide glasses As2Se3, As2S3 and As2Te3 have been extensively studied. .Mixed systems such as the As2Se3-As2Te3 binaries and the As2Se3As2Te3-TI2Se systems have also been the subjects of detailed investigations. This is due to the large variety of such ternary and quaternary systems. Classification of these materials is difficult, particularly in view of the freedom that is allowed in amorphous systems to depart from stoichiometric proportions of the constituents. However, the use of the stoichiometric compositions allows useful comparison with the material in its crystalline phase. 2.3 Electronics Band Structure and Defects The absence of long–range order in amorphous semiconductors does not have a major effect on the energy distribution of the electronic levels. The density of states retains a profile similar to that of the crystalline phase. The absence of long-range order manifest itself in the form of band tailing and localization of the electronic states. Localized states near both conduction and valence bands are separated by the so–called mobility edges. This is because conduction through the localized states can only occur by thermally assisted hopping or tunneling . The electronic states of a solid may be considered to first approximation to be a broadened superposition of the molecular orbital states of the constituent bands. In Ge 3 fourfold coordinated the hybridized Sp orbitals are split into bonding σ and anti-bonding σ* states, Fig (2-1a) . In the solid phase molecular states are broadened into bands. Thus, in tetrahedral semiconductors the bonding band forms the valence band and the anti-bonding band
forms the conduction one. In Se the S states lie well below the P–states thus no hybridization occurs. Then only two of the three P states can be utilized for bonding, Se is found in two fold coordination. This leaves one nonbonding electron pair, Fig (2-1b)
Figure (2-1) Showing bonding in (a) Ge and (b) Se A: atomic bonding B: hybridized states C: molecular states D: broadening of states into bands in the solid phase unshared or lone pair L electrons Form a band near the original P–states energy. The σ and σ* are split symmetrically with respect to this reference energy. Thus the bonding band is no longer the valence band and this role is played by the LP band in the tetrahedral materials localized states are produced in the gap due to the formation of dangling bonds. In the
chalcogenide materials the LP bands lie in the energy region between bands. The question of states in the gap, whether of extrinsic or intrinsic nature is of considerable importance. Cohen, Fritzche and Ovshinsky (CFO)  model supposed that the non crystalline structure would lead to overlapping of band tails of localized states as in Fig (2-2a). Those derived from the conduction band would be neutral when empty and those derived from the valence band are assumed to be neutral when occupied. In the overlap region they would be charged leading to centers with unpaired spins. In this model known as CFO model they emphasized the existence of mobility edges at energies in the band tails. These are identified with critical energies separating localized states from extended states. The difference between the energies of the mobility edges in the valence and conduction bands is called the “mobility gap”. Mott and Davis  proposed a band model in which they made a strong distinction between localized states that originate from the lack of long–range order and those which are due to defects in the structure. The first kind of localized states extend only to energy EA and EB in the mobility gap, Fig (2-2b) The defect states form longer tails but of insufficient density to pin the Fermi level. The authors proposed a band of compensation near the gap center in order to account for the pinning of the Fermi level and suggested that if the states of the compensation band arose from defect centers such as dangling bonds then they could act as deep donors Ey and acceptors. This means that the compensation band will be split into two bands Ey and Ex as shown in Fig (2-2c).
Figure (2-2) Shows various forms proposed for the density of states in amorphous semiconductors. The shaded areas represent localized states. (a) Overlapping of conduction and valence band tails as proposed by Cohen et. al. (the CFO model) (b) Real gap in the density of states (Mott-CFO model). (c) The same as (b) but with compensation bands Ey and Ex. The Fermi level will lie between Ey and Ex if they do not overlap or be pinned within them, if they do, since the above models were proposed many experimental data have emerged providing a clearer picture of the density distribution of states in the gap of amorphous semiconductors. Spear proposed that the centers responsible may arise from pairs of dangling bonds at
defects similar in nature to the divacancy in the crystal. The lower Ey and upper Ex levels associated with this defect correspond to bonding and anti-bonding states and are separated by more than energy proposed in the model of Mott and Davis. 2.3.1 Types of Defects The importance of defects lies in the fact that many properties of amorphous materials can be defect controlled as in the case of crystalline solids. Some of these properties are magnetic properties, optoelectronic behavior, vibrational properties and mechanical characteristic. For certain materials, e.g. chalcogenide glasses, the ideal amorphous state is impossible to achieve experimentally since structural defects are present even in thermal equilibrium in the melt and are consequently frozen on vitrification. A dangling bond is simply a broken or unsatisfied bond and it normally contains one electron and it is electrically neutral. A dangling bond can only be formed in covalent solid and it has no meaning in a solid formed from non–directional bonds such as in a metal ionic salt or rare gas. Structural defects such as dangling bonds are expected to introduce electron states deep into the gap which is empty in the ideal case except for band tailing. The precise position of these states in the gap will depend on factors such as the electronic character of the states in the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band from which the Eigen functions of the defect states derives. The density of the states in the gap for an amorphous semiconductor containing dangling bonds defects might be as shown in Fig (2-3) the dangling bond level is broadened by disorder into a band. The lower mid gap band corresponds to dangling bond containing single electron and is donor–like, i.e. neutral when occupied. The
upper band corresponds to a different charge state of the same defect namely when an extra electron is placed in it and is acceptor–like, i.e., neutral when empty. The essential features of the charged dangling band model may be understood by considering a monoatomic system of amorphous Se as in Fig (2-3).
Figure (2-3) Formation of charged defects (valence alternation pairs) in chalcogenide glasses.
(a)Illustration of the formation of threefold coordination D+ (C+) and single coordinated D- (C-1) defect centers by exchange of an electron between two Do (Co1) centers. (b)Configuration – coordinate diagram for the formation of D+- D- p Amorphous Se is twofold coordinated and it consists mainly of chains. Any chain end will be a site of a dangling bond which contains an unpaired electron. Mott et al referred to this dangling bond defect as Do where the superscript indicates the charge state. They postulated following Anderson  electrons residing at Do centers should experience negative effective correlation energy Ueff and electron pairing should be energetically favorable as a result of atomic rearrangements. The transfer of an electron from one Do center to another produces on site which has the original dangling bond orbital containing two spin – paired electrons and which is consequently negatively
charged D- and the other which has an empty orbital which is then free to form a band with the lone pair of a fully connected neighbouring atom. The defect now becomes three fold coordinated and positively charged D+. The repulsive Hubbard energy U involved in placing an extra electron on the same site to form a D- center is postulated to be weighed by the energy gained in forming the extra bond at the D+ site rendering the reaction exothermic: 2D → D + +D The process is illustrated in Fig (2-4a) and (2-4b) where the coordinate “q” may be taken to be the sum of the distance between two Do centers and their respective nearest neighbor but non- directly bonded atoms. Kastener et al  considered the same process of spin pairing at defects in amorphous chalcogenide referring to it as “Valence Alteration” and used the notation C3+ for D+ and C1- for Dwhere C stands for chalcogen atom and the superscript refers to charge state and subscript refers to the coordination. 2.4 Thin Film Growth Process Any thin film deposition process involves three main steps: (1) Production of appropriate atomic, molecular or ionic species. (2) Their transport to the substrate through a medium and (3) Condensation on the substrate, either directly or via a chemical and/or electrochemical reaction, to form a solid deposit. Formation of a thin film takes place via nucleation
and growth processes. The general picture of the step-bystep growth process emerging out of the various experimental and theoretical studies can be presented as follows: 1. The unit species, on impinging the substrate, lose their velocity component normal to the substrate (provided the incident energy is not too high) and are physically adsorbed on the substrate surface. 2. The adsorbed species are not initially in thermal equilibrium with the substrate and move over the substrate surface. In this process they interact among themselves, forming bigger clusters. 3. The clusters or the nuclei, as they are called, are thermodynamically unstable and tend to desorbed in a time depending on the deposition parameters. If the deposition parameters are such that a cluster collides with other adsorbed species before getting desorbed, it starts growing in size. After a certain critical size is reached, the cluster becomes thermodynamically stable and nucleation barrier is said to have been overcomes. This step involving the formation of stable, chemisorbed; critical-sized nuclei is called nucleation stage. 4. The critical nuclei grow in number as well as in size until a saturation nucleation density reached. The nucleation density and the average nucleus size depend on a number of parameters such as the energy of the impinging species, the rate of impingement, the activation energies of adsorption, desorption and thermal diffusion, and the temperature, topography, and chemical nature of the substrate. A nucleus can grow both parallel to the substrate by surface diffusion of the adsorbed
species, as well as perpendicular to it by direct impingement of the incident species. In general, however, the rate of lateral growth at this stage is much higher than the perpendicular growth. The grown nuclei are called islands. 5. The next stage in the process of film formation is the coalescence stage, in which the small islands start coalescing with each other in an attempt to reduce the surface area. This tendency to form bigger islands is termed agglomeration and is enhanced by increasing the surface mobility of the adsorbed species, as for example, by increasing the substrate temperature. In some cases, formation of new nuclei may occur on the areas freshly exposed as a consequence of coalescence. 6. Larger islands grow together, leaving channels and holes of uncovered substrate. The structure of the films at this stage changes from discontinuous island type to porous network type. A completely continuous film is formed by filling of the channels and holes The growth process may be summarized as consisting of a statistical process of nucleation, surface-diffusion controlled growth of the three-dimensional nuclei and formation of a network structure then its subsequent filling to give a continuous film. Depending on the thermodynamic parameters of the deposit and the substrate surface, the initial nucleation and growth stages may be described as of (a) island type, (b) layer type, and (c) mixed type (called Stranski-Krastanov type). This is illustrated in Fig (3-3). In almost all practical cases, the growth 3takes place by island formation.
2.5 Optical Properties of Amorphous Materials The distribution in energy of the electron states in an amorphous material has gross features that resemble those of the material in its crystalline form. Optical techniques such as U.V. absorption and ph photoemission can be used to probe the spectrum of electron levels in non – crystalline systems. One of the most important properties of glass iis its transparency in IR region. The implication of this as far as the energy spectrum of electron states is conce concerned is that
are empty, just as crystalline semiconductors and insulators. So, in ordinary window glass this gap must be larger than the energy of quanta, whereas in In –Sn– Se – Bi which is opaque the transparency is in the infra-red. The origin of the gap in semiconducting or insulating amorphous materials cannot be considered from the viewpoint of scattering of block waves by periodic lattice potential, which is the normal approach for crystals. In glasses there is no translational symmetry. The gross features of the energy spectra of electron states in many solids (particularly the density of valence band states) is now known to depend on the nearest neighbor environment of a particular atom , with long – range interactions affect details only. Since in most amorphous materials the forces that bind atoms together are virtually the same as in the crystalline state. One frequently finds nearest–neighbor bond length and angles similar to those in the corresponding crystals and thus a similar density of states distribution. 2.5.1 Optical Absorption Mechanisms Optical absorption in solids can occur by several mechanisms all of which involve coupling of the electric vector of the incident radiation to dipole moments in the material and a consequent of energy. Semiconductors show all the optical properties of insulators and metals though not of course to the same degree. The main features are as follows to Fig (2-5) .
Figure (2-5) Absorption spectrum of thin film. In the ultraviolet, and sometimes extends into the visible and infra-red, intense absorption due to electronic transitions between valence and conduction bands can be observed. Such transitions generate mobile electrons and holes resulting in photo-conductivity. The absorption coefficient is typically in the range 105 to 106 cm-1 on the high energy side of this band (typically around 2 eV). There is often a smooth fall in absorption over a range of several electrons volts. On the low energy side, the absorption coefficient falls more rapidly and may fall as much as six orders of magnitude within a few tenth of eV. In semiconductors, this low energy boundary of the fundamental absorption is often the most striking feature of the spectrum and is referred to as the “absorption edge”. • The limit of the absorption edge corresponds to the photon energy required to promote electrons across the
minimum energy gap Eg. The edge region often shows some structure in particular that are due to excitons. An exciton is formed when an electron, having been excited insufficiently to escape from the influence of the hole it leaves behind, is able to exist in a stable state in which it does not recombine with the hole. The electron and hole pair are held together as hydrogen atom by their mutual Coulomb attraction and the separated charges can exist in one of a series of quantized energy states. Exciton absorption is more pronounced in insulators particularly ionic crystals than in semiconductors and can leads to strong narrow – line absorption as in ionic spectra. •
As the wave length is increased beyond the absorption edge, the absorption starts to rise slowly again. This increase is due to electronic transitions within the conduction or intraband transitions and is referred to as "free carrier absorption" or "intraband transition". It extends throughout the infrared and microwave region of the spectrum.
• At photon energies between 0.02 and 0.05 eV (50 to 20 µm wave length) a new set of absorption peaks appears. These are due to interaction between the incident photons and the vibrational modes of the lattice. If the crystal is ionic the absorption coefficient may reach 105 cm-1 and strong reflection occurs. •
Impurities give rise to additional absorption but only at low temperatures such that thermal energy is less than the ionization energies of the impurity atoms.
• Absorption may occur in solids due to electron spin reversal. Solid containing paramagnetic impurities will show absorption line spectra in the presence of external magnetic field.
2-5-2 Absorption Edge Electronic transition between the valence and conduction bands shown in Fig (2-6) in the crystal start at the absorption edge which corresponds to the minimum energy difference, Eg between the lowest minimum of the conduction and highest maximum of the valence band.
Figure (2-5) Optical interband transitions in (a) Direct (b) Indirect band gap semiconductor If these extreme lie at the same point of the K- space, the transitions are called direct. If this is not the case, the transitions are possible only when phonon–assisted and are called indirect transitions.
The rule governing these transitions is the observation of quasi momentum during transitions either of the electron alone in direct transitions or the sum of the electron and phonon quasi momenta in indirect transitions. The value of the gap Eopt depends in a rather subtle way on the structure and actual values of the pseudo potential in the crystal. When the semiconductor becomes amorphous one observes a shift of the absorption edge either to towards lower or higher energies. The he shape of the absorption curve appears to be similar for many amorphous semiconductors. In manyy amorphous semiconductors the absorption ed edge has the shape shown in Fig ((2-6).
Figure (2-6) parts A, B, C of the absorption edge
It can be distinguished by the high absorption region 4 A (α > 10 cm-1). The exponential part B extends over 4 orders of magnitude of α and the weak absorption tail C. The high absorption region A probably corresponds to normal one–electron transitions and carriers information on the energy dependence of the density of states at the band edges. In general the high absorption region is often observed in semiconducting glasses that at high enough absorption levels (α ≥ 104 cm-1) the absorption constant α has the following frequency dependence: n0 ℏγα (γ ) = (ℏγ − E gopt ) n
Where n is a constant that depends on the type of transition and no is the refractive index. For direct transitions the constant n in the above equation can take either the value 1/2 or 3/2 depends on whether the transition is allowed or forbidden in the quantum mechanical sense. For amorphous chalcogenides the spectral dependence of α is given by the following relation: (2.3) α = B ( ℏ − E gopt ) 2 ℏ ω where B is a constant. For indirect transition:
α n0ℏγ =
(ℏω − Egopt + hγ ph )n hγ exp KT
(ℏω − Egopt + hγ ph )n hγ 1 − exp KT
rom transitions involving phonon absorption and emission respectively. For allowed transitions n=2 and for forbidden transitions n=3. The exponential region of the absorption edge (part B), i.e. in the absorption constant range from 1 cm-1 to about 104 cm-1, the absorption constant α(ω) is described by the formula:
α (ω) = α0 exp(ℏω E0 )
Where Eo is the width of the band tail. The energy Eo characterizing the slope is almost temperature independent at low temperatures. It is interesting to note that Eo values between 0.05 eV and 0.08 eV.
2.6 The Electrical Properties of Chalcogenide Glasses The D.C. conductivity σ of most of the chalcogenide glasses near room temperature obeys the relation: 1 Eσ 2 KT
σ = C exp −
where Eσ is the activation energy for conduction. The 3 4 constant C is often in the range of 10 - 10 ohm-1 cm-1 but it -5
can be as low as 10 ohm-1 cm-1 and as high as 10 ohm-1 cm-1. The D.C. conductivity, in general , shows that log σ is a fairly linear function of 1/T and the variable range hopping conductivity behaving approximately as Aexp(1/4 .B/T) is not observed for chalcogenide [62-63]. However deviation from linearity can occur at low temperatures as a result of different mechanisms for conduction. The thermo power for the chalcogenide glasses is normally positive, early work was frequently done at the liquid phase. For As2Se3, Edmond  has found that the activation energy in the liquid phase appears greater than in the solid phase suggesting that the gap decreases with increasing temperature T. In chalcogenide glasses there are different conduction mechanisms which can be observed.
The conductivity σ in the chalcogenide glasses can be written as: σ = σ O EXP ( −
The three terms arise from three different conduction mechanisms and they are to be discussed separately. a) The high temperature region In the first region, the dominant mechanism is the band conduction through the extended states. This region is expressed by the first term of the R.H.S of equation (4-3). The constant σo for the chalcogenide glasses varies from 10-2 to 5×10-9Ω1cm1 and is found to depend on the composition , where ∆E is the activation energy, K being the Boltzmann constant and is the absolute temperature.
b) Hopping Conduction Via Localized states This is responsible for the conduction in the second region. Here the conductivity arises from tunneling through unoccupied levels of the nearest neighbouring centers. The value of σ1 is approximately (102-104)) times less than σ0 partly because of the smaller density of localized states and their low mobilities. (c) Hopping conduction near the Fermi level This third contribution to conductivity in an amorphous semiconductor is analogous to impurity conduction in heavily doped semiconductors. In this case the conductivity
is given by the third term on the R.H.S. of eq.(4 eq.(4-3). In the present ent study results on the D C conductivity of thin film samples of amorphous InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 semiconductor 2.7 Switching in Alloys Glasses The realization that films of chalcogenide alloys show fast and reversible switching from a hi high to a low resistance state ] was one reason for the rapid growing interest in these materials from year 1968 onwards. There are, of course, many forms of switching which can occur in a wide variety of materials and even in lliquid alloys of S, Se and Te ; ]; it is unlikely that the same mechanism is responsible in all cases. The current current–voltage characteristics of a typical glass switching tching device is shown in Fig (2-7)
Figure (2-7) Current – Voltage characteristic curve (I (I-V) of switch Ih denote current.
The current in on state depends on temperature or voltage, and the current is maintai maintained unless the “holding current”drops drops below some critical value. In the memory switch, constructed from a less stable alloy (e.g. Ge17 Te19 Sb2 S2), partial crystallization of a conducting channel occurs in some milliseconds after threshold switching, memory switching occurs due to formation of a filamentary path which is crystalline in nature soon oon after the formation of a crystalline filament, the D.C. conductance increase by many orders of magnitude and the device gets locked in the on state even after removal of the applied DC voltage voltage. Fig (2-9) shows the dynamic I-V V characteristic curve ffor thin film of amorphous (memory switch). A forming process may occur during the initial switching witching event, but switches can be constructed in which no forming occurs. The main contraversy about the mechanism of switching in these devices has been whether itt is thermal, (a hot conducting channel being formed leading to negative resistance), or whether somee electronic process [68  like double injection is involved.
Figure (2-8) Dynamic (I-V) V) characteristic curve for thin film of amorphous semiconductor (Memory switch)
A system in which switching is probably thermal is the vandate glass switching investigated by Higgins  and by earlier workers. However, the evidence, reviewed by Adler et al , suggests strongly that thermal mechanism is not the correct model for the chalcogenide glasses. 2-8 Radiation Sources The sources of radiation, which are used in radiation studies and applications, can be divided into two groups, those employing natural and artificial radioactive isotopes, and those that employ some form of particle accelerator. The first group consists of the classical radiation sources, radium and radon, and such artificial radioisotopes as cobalt-60 cesium-137, and of various types, and accelerators such as van de Graaff accelerator and cyclotron used to generate beams of positive ions. Nuclear reactors have also currently, the most widely used radiation sources are cobalt-60 (γ-radiation) and electron accelerators (electron beam). Choice of a particular radiation source is generally dependent on the nature and size of the object to be irradiated. Gaseous materials can be irradiated successfully using any type of ionizing radiation, but irradiation of bulk liquid or solid samples requires one of the more penetrating and ionizing radiations such as (γ-radiation) or a beam of energetic electrons in MeV range. Less penetrating radiations such as α or β radiation or lower-energy electrons can be used if irradiation is to be restricted to the surface layers of the sample. 2-8-1 Gamma Radiation Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation of nuclear origin with wave lengths in the region of 3×10-11 m to 3×10-13 m. It is more convenient to describe the radiation in
terms of energy than in terms of wavelength since it is the energy absorbed from the radiation is basically of interest. The relationship between wavelength and energy is E = hc / λ
Where h is Plank's constant, c is the velocity of light, and λ is the wave length. Substituting for the constants gives E (eV ) = (1.24 ×10−6 ) / λ (m)
In terms of energy the wave length range 3×10-11 m to 3×10-13m becomes approximately 40KeV to 4 MeV. The γ-rays emitted by radioactive isotopes are either monoenergetic or have a small number of discrete energies. Cobalt-60, for example, gives equal numbers of gamma photons of energy 1.332 and 1.173 MeV.
2-8-2 Interaction Of Gamma Radiation with Matter In passing through matter, γ-radiation interacts with matter in a variety of processes. The three main processes are the photo electric effect, Compton scattering and pair production. The probability of each of these interactions depends on the energy of the incident photon. At low energies, the Compton Effect dominates, and at high energies pair production dominates. as shown in fig (2-9)
(i) photo electric effect When γ-rays are incident on a solid, a single electron absorbs the incident photon and becomes exited to the conduction band or ejected from the atom. This ejected electron will collide with other electrons, sharing the electron. This will result in many electrons exited to the conduction band, each with roughly the same energy. Eventually, these electrons will fall back to the more stable
ground state. When this occurs, each will emit a photon with energy approximately equal to the band gap. Because this process happens so quickly, all the electrons will fall back to the ground state at roughly the same time. The photoelectric effect is the dominant energy transfer mechanism for X and γ-ray photons with energies below 50 KeV.
(ii) Compton scattering When a γ-ray collide elastically with an electron, the electron absorbs some of the energy, and the photon continues in a new direction with less energy and a longer wavelength. The amount of energy absorbed by the electron is dependent on the scattering angle of the γphoton after collision takes place. When maximum energy is transferred to the electron, the rebound photon has maximum wavelength and minimum energy. Compton scattering is thought to be the principal mechanism for γrays in the intermediate energy range from 100 keV to 10MeV.
(iii) Pair production A gamma ray may spontaneously change into an electron and positron pair, in the vicinity of the nucleus. A positron is the anti-matter equivalent of an electron. It has the same mass as an electron, but it has a positive charge equal in strength to the negative charge of an electron. Energy in excess of the equivalent rest mass of the two particles (1.02 MeV) appears as the kinetic energy of the pair and the recoil nucleus. The positron has a very short lifetime (if immersed in matter) (about 10-8seconds).At the end of its range, it combines with a free electron .The entire mass of these two particles is then converted into two gamma photons of 0.51 MeV energy each. The secondary electrons (or positrons) produced in any of these three processes
frequently have enough energy to produce many ionization up to the end of range.
Figure (2-10) The interaction of gamma rays with matter probabilities
Figure (2-11) Mechanism of the interaction of gamma rays with matter probabilities.
2-9 Radiation Effects on Solids Historically, one of the earliest examples of the action of radiation on solids was the production of pleochroic holes in mica by radiation from inclusions of radioactive substances such as uranium or thorium . Early studies of the action of nuclear radiations on solids showed, among their effects, that colorless glass becomes colored up on exposure to radiation and that the coloration can be removed by the action of heat or light. Clearly, a variety of effects may be observed, depending on the nature of the radiation and the solids. Much of the information available is concerned with physical rather than chemical effects  and no attempt is made here at an exhaustive treatment. All types of ionizing radiation are able to produce ionized and excited atoms in the solid and, when ionizing radiation is absorbed in semiconductor materials a temporary change in electrical conductivity is induced by the production of electrons or positive holes having sufficient energy to be free to move through the material. In certain materials a permanent change in conductivity may be produced by radiation damage. This change in conductivity can be measured as a function of the absorbed dose in the semiconductor detector, so that the system is then an integrating dosimeter [73-75]. The materials most commonly used are Silicon, Germanium, Cadmium Sulfied and recently porcelain [76-77] and Oxide Glass  The theory of radiation damage is based on the assumption that the simplest defect arising in a solid is a vacancy or displaced atom with a more or less stable position in the interstitial. That is, if the energy transferred to the lattice atom is greater than a certain amount, the lattice atom will be displaced to an interstitial position. The displaced atom will leave behind a vacancy in the lattice.
The result vacancy–interstitial pairs is called a “Frenkel pair” [79-86]. Frenkel defects are the simplest point defects in lattice and differ from dislocation and from the more complex and extended imperfection. Frenekel defects are produced uniformly through o
lattice. At finite temperature, particularly above -173 C, the vacancies are mobile in the solid, and they unite with themselves or with impurities in the solid, and from defect complex in order to obtain lower energy levels in the forbidden gap. Theoretical analysis of the problem is difficult especially due to the lack of data concerning the exact values of the capture cross–sections. The number of defects produced by hard radiation and the energy levels of such defects can be studied by measuring the electrical conductivity and the Hall Effect. Two aspects for the interaction of radiation with matter are recognized. A large fraction of the energy of an incident energetic goes in electronic processes (excitation and ionization), and this produces, temporary or transient disturbance in the material which disappear shortly after the removal of radiation source. The remainder of the incident optical energy goes into atomic processes and produce displacement of atoms within the solid lattice. The fraction of these displacements which remain after long time, (103) seconds at room temperature will be called damage. There are many factors influencing the amount and type of damage produced by radiation. Some of these factors can change the results by a factor of 2 or 3, and some others change the results by more than an order of magnitude for a given radiation. The amount of permanent radiation damage is given by:
Damage = f ( A, B, C, D, E)
Where A, B, C….etc. are all parameters, each depend on: i.
The temperature of sample during irradiation.
Inactive dissolved impurity concentration.
iii. P-Type or n–type. iv. History after irradiation. v.
Rate of irradiation.
So, in studying the damage produced by radiation, these parameters must be known, or at least they must be kept constant. Electrons, gamma–rays, neutrons and heavy particles, are most interesting types of radiation commonly used in solid state studies.
2-9-1 Defect Production by Gamma–Rays Gamma rays, like fast electrons produce point defects. The probability of an atom being displaced by a direct interaction between gamma–rays and atomic nuclei in crystal is very small. Most defects are formed by the secondary fast electrons produced as a result of the photo electric effect, the gamma rays Compton scattering or/and the electrons– positions pairs creation formed at high gamma–ray energies. The total absorption cross–section of gamma– rays is determined as a result of the above three processes. Evans and some others could calculate the probabilities of occurrence for each of these events.
Chapter 3 Experimental Techniques 3.1 Preparation of Bulk compositions There are at least a dozen of different techniques that can be used to prepare materials in the amorphous phase. Of these, two normal ways are commonly used in one form or another to produce most non-crystalline material; by cooling from a melt or by condensation from the vapour. The first method forms bulk materials, while the second yields thin films as in thermal evaporation, sputtering or glow discharge techniques. During the preparation of the amorphous material, the faster the rate of cooling or deposition the farther the amorphous solid lies from equilibrium .The present glasses were prepared from Sn, Se, Bi and In elements with purity 99.999 %. These glasses are reactive at high temperature with oxygen. Therefore, synthesis was accomplished in evacuated clean silica tubes. The tubes were washed by distilled water, and then dried in °
a furnace whose temperature was about100 C. For each composition the proper amounts of materials were weighted using an electrical balance type (Sartorius) with -4 accuracy ± 10 gm. The weighted materials were introduced into the cleaned silica tubes and then evacuated -6 to about 10 torr and sealed. The sealed tubes were placed inside the furnace and the temperature of the furnace was raised gradually up to 900°C within 1 hour and kept constant for 10 hours. Moreover, shaking of the constituent materials inside the tube in the furnace was necessary for realizing the homogeneity of the composition.
After synthesis, the tube was quenched into ice water. The glassy ingots could be obtained by drastic quenching. Then materials were removed from the tubes and kept in dry atmosphere. The ingot materials were identified as glass due to their bright features. The proper ingots were confirmed to be completely amorphous using x-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. Homogeneity of the prepared samples was proved by determination of density of different parts. Silica tubes used for bulk amorphous is illustrated in Fig (3-1).
Figure (3-1) Silica tubes used for bulk amorphous semiconductors preparation.
Washing silica tubes with distilled water and dried in a furnace whose temperature about 100 °C. Weighting of each component in composition.
Weighted materials introduced into the cleaned silica tubes. Cleaned silica tubes evacuated to about 10-6 torr and sealed. The sealed tubes placed inside the furnace and the temperature of the furnace was raised gradually up to 900°C within 1 hour and kept constant for 10hours.
Shaking the constituent materials inside the tube in the furnace is necessary for realizing the homogeneity of the composition.
After synthesis the tube was quenched into ice water. Materials removed from the tubes and kept in dry atmosphere. Figure (3-2) Design flow chart for Preparation of bulk amorphous InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20.
3.2 Preparation of Thin Films Thin films of the selected compositions were prepared by the most widely used technique known as thermal evaporation technique of bulk samples on to glass substrates for both optical and dc conductivity measurements. In order to prepare well-formed and homogeneous films onto glass substrates and homogenous glass substrate with low surface roughness the following steps were carried out: i) Cleaning the substrate • The substrates were washed several times using hot distilled water and soap. • Then substrates were exposed to ultrasonic waves using Branson-120 device for 15 minutes in a solution of distilled water and ethyl alcohol. • Finally the substrates were washed with distilled water and ethyl alcohol separately and then, dried in an oven.
ii) Thermal deposition of thin film An Edward 306E coating unit shown in Fig (3-3) was used for thin film deposition. The vacuum system consists mainly of a rotary pump, diffuse on pump, penning bridge for measuring vacuum, high A.C. current source and the bell jar. The heating of the tungestun boat was achieved by spiral tungsten wire. The Tungetun boat had to be cleaned every time before evaporation. This was accomplished by using hydrochloric acid, then washing
several times with boiled distilled water and finally it was dried in a furnace, whose temperature was about 100 °C. The Fig (3-4) illustrated a flow chart for Preparation of Inx Sn20Se(60-x )Bi20 Films and Fig (3-5) showed that the copper mask designed for E-306A.
Figure (3-3) a) schematic diagram b) captured photo Vacuum coating unit
Cleaned tungestun boat every time before evaporation by using hydrochloric acid.
Washing several times with boiled distilled water and dried in furnace whose temperature was about 100 °C.
Edward 306E coating unit was used for thin film deposition at a pressure of 10-6 torr.
The heating of the silica boat was achieved by spiral tungsten wire ,
The distance between the substrate and upper ends of the boat was adjusted to be 14cm.
The vacuum system was turned ON until the vacuum inside the bell jar reached 10-6 torr
During the deposition process (at normal incidence), the substrates were suitably rotated in order to obtain films of uniform
The thickness of the prepared thin film samples was measured by using thickness monitor
Figure (3-4) Design flow chart for Preparation of InxSn20Se(60-x )Bi20 Films.
Figure (3-5) The he copper mask designed for E E-306A. 3.3
Methods for thin film thickness measurement
The film thickness is one of the most important parameters. The thin film properties show a high degree of dependence on it, so it should be measured accurately. In the present work,, the film thickness was measured by Applying ing common techniques: toring technique using a quartz crystal • A monitoring thickness monitor.
Figure (3-6) Thickness monitor (TM (TM-200).
3.3.1 Quartz crystal thickness monitor technique In this method, the film was deposited onto one electrode of a quartz crystal connected to an oscillator to an oscillator circuit. The crystal thickness (dq) has the fundamental resonance frequency (f) 
f = V p / 2d q = C / d q
Where VP is the velocity of transverse elastic wave in the direction of the thickness dq and C is the frequency constant when a certain amount of the material is deposited on the quartz crystal; the thickness will be increased by δdq, where
δ d q = δ m / Aρq
(3.2) where δm is the mass of the deposited film, ρq is the density of quartz and A is the film area on the crystal. Due to increase in the mass, the frequency will change by δƒ, where δ f = ( f 2 / C ).(δ m / Aρq ) (3.3) The linear dependence of δƒ on δm was given by the above equation, which has a limited range of validity for film thickness of approximately 2µ and with thicker film the crystal becomes non-linear, The film thickness ,d ,is determined by
D = G(∆f / ρm )
Where G is a constant in gm/Hz.cm2, ∆ƒ is the frequency changein Hz, ρm is the material density in gm.cm-3.
3.4 Density Determination Density is an important physical parameter which is related to other physical properties of the material and also is used to examine the homogeneity of the as-prepared materials. The density of the considered samples was determined using the method of hydrostatic weight using toluene. A single crystal of germanium was used as a reference material for determining the toluene density. The latter has been determined from the formula: ' ' Wair − Wtoluene dtoluene = × dGe ' Wair
Where, w' is the weight of single Ge crystal. Then, the sample density was calculated from the formula:
Wair ×d Wair −Wtoluene toluene
Where w is the weight of the sample . While the density dth of the prepared compositions was also calculated theoretically using Myuller,s formula . d th = [ ∑ i
Pi −1 ] di
Where Pi is the fraction of weight of the ith element and di is its density.
3.5 Structure Measurements The Structure characteristics of the investigated In-SnSe-Bi system in both powder and thin film forms have been investigated by: 1. X-Ray analysis. i) X-Ray Diffraction techniques (XRD). ii) Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). 2. Diffraction Thermal Analysis (DTA) Technique. 3. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
A brief description of these methods will be given below. 1- X-Ray analysis X-ray analysis for both bulk and thin films include two analyses for getting compositional and structural information about prepared samples.
i) X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). X-Ray diffraction has been used to investigate and characterize the structure of the as prepared samples. This has been done with the aid of a “Shimadzu XRD-6000’’ as shown in Fig (3-7) diffractmeter which consists of αpw1400/90 stabilized X-raygenerator,αpw1050/70 vertical goniometer, αpw1995/60 proportional counter and αpw1930 electronic panel. Nickel–filtered copper radiation with λ=1.542 Å was used in the present investigation. The choice of a particular X-ray radiation source of a certain wavelength depends on the fact that if the radiation
wave length λ is less than that of the absorption edge of the examined sample, large absorption will cause a faint reflection. The filter was located between the scatter slit and the count tube. The X- ray has been operated at 50 kv and 25 mA throughout the measurements. A sample of the considered material was ground to fine powder flat rectangular specimen holders, made of aluminum, and is used, each with an aperture of 2 x 1 x 0.2 cm3. The rear of aperture was closed with metal plates. A smooth specimen surface was prepared by backing with a glass slide. By an appropriate choice of the slit system, at least half of the specimen surface area was examined in each angular range from 10 to 80 degrees (2θ) X–ray diffraction pattern was recorded automatically by the diffract meter, is essentially a plot of intensities as a function of the angle of reflection given by the material. The resulting diffraction pattern of crystal comprises both positions and intensities of the diffraction effects.
Analysis of the position of the diffraction effects leads immediately to a knowledge of the size, shape, and orientation of the unit cell, while the position of the individual atoms in the cell may be found from the peak intensity measurements. The measured angle (2θ) of the crystalline samples and the inter planar (d') are related through Bragg’s law. ' nλ = 2dhkI (3.8) sin θ hkI Where λ is the wave length of the X–ray source, θ is the Bragg’s angle (angle of the incidence or reflection), d’hkI refers to the orientation of the plane, and n is an integer equal to 1, 2, 3 ….etc. ii) Energy Dispersive X-ray: The elemental analysis of the prepared samples in the bulk and thin film form was performed by a technique known as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis In this analysis the specimen is subjected to an energetic electron beam(20KeV) resulting in production of characteristic Xrays from the specimen surface. The emitted X-ray spectrum was used in determining qualitatively and quantitatively the composition of each sample and to ensure the sample homogeneity as well. The electron beam energy 20keV was selected for two reasons; the first is because, the maximum X-ray energy collected by the device is 20keV on the X-ray scale. The Second reason is to prevent high penetration of the film, since energy greater than 20keV may occur. “AJEOL-5400” Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with (EDX) attachment was used in determining the accurate composition of both bulk and thin film samples.
2- Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) Differential thermal analysis (DTA) is the technique of measuring the heat effects associated with physical or chemical changes that take place as a substance is heated at a constant rate.. The appearance of many papers in the last decades in which quantitative DTA results showed that under controlled conditions, fairly good quantitative results can be obtained also, the availability of better equipment has assisted in getting reproducible conditions. The basic principle of DTA is the measurement of the temperature difference between the sample and a reference material as they are heated simultaneously under uniform rate. A solid state reaction causes an evolution of heat, which is shown as temperature difference ∆T between the sample and the reference material . As this heat is dissipated to the surroundings, ∆T reduces to zero again. Measurements of the temperature T and ∆T over a suitable range gives a thermo gram characteristic of the reaction occurred. Accordingly, the DTA curve of Fig (3-8) continues in an approximately rectilinear manner, until the test material undergoes some physical or chemical change.
Figure (3-8) Typical DTA thermo gram illustrating the definition of the different transition temperature.
The curve begins to deviate from the baseline; the first deviation is more representative of the start of a transition then the peak. V.G. Hill and Roy  stated that the nearest approach to transition temperature is the point at which the curve leaves the baseline. This point is difficult to be determined, so the intersection of the baseline and the extrapolation of the straight part of the adjacent side of the peak is the glass transition temperature Tg, then the curve begins to deviate from the base line forming the crystallization peak at temperature Tc. After that, the curve returns to the new baseline. The onset of an endothermic reaction is indicated by the downwards deflection of the baseline giving rise to endothermic peak, melting temperature Tm. A micro–DTA apparatus, Shimadzu DTA-50 model, was used for the measurement of DTA. Fig (3-8), Fig (3-9) showed the captured photo and a block diagram illustrating the main units of the used DTA.
Figure (3-9) Differential thermal analysis
Figure (3-10) Principle diagram of Differential thermal analysis. It is mainly a combination of a sample holder, DA30 amplifier, control unit and two pen recorder R–22T. The control unit permits temperature control for the sample holder, also it permits the temperature to be displayed digitally either in C or K . The pen of the recorder provides a mark at every 1 degree or 10 degree on the chart to ensure more precise temperature measurement. Also, the temperature is simultaneously recorded as a solid line on the chart. The heating rate can be adjusted to ten different rates ranging from 1 degree/min up to 100 degree/min. The experimental conditions adopted were in accordance with the recommendations of Machenzi . i)Preparation of Samples for DTA Measurements The studied samples were 25mg powder of each of the compositions under investigation. They were heated up to about 500 °C in aluminum cells. All measurements were referenced to a α-Al2O3 powder in Al cell. However, in order to obtain good and reproducible results, the following precautions were taken during measurements:
• The temperature distribution in the sample was made as uniform as possible. • The sample must be in good contact with the cell, and the cell must be in good contact with the detector. This means that the bottom of the cell must be flat. • Nitrogen flow must be allowed at a constant rate of about 50ml/min to prevent oxidation of the sample. 25mg powder of each of the composition under investigation
Heated up to 500 °C in aluminum cell
Measurements were referenced to α –Al2O3 powder in Al cell
To obtain good results take into consideration the following Temperature distribution in the sample was made as uniform as possible. 1- Bottom of the cell must be flat to have good contact with the sample. 2- Nitrogen flow must be at constant rate 50ml/min
Figure (3.11) Design flow chart for DTA thin film Preparation.
3) Scanning Electron Microscope technique (SEM) The morphology of the surface of In-Sn-Se-Bi thin films could be investigated by using a Scanning Electron Microscope.
Figure (3-12) AJEOL-5400 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with (EDX). 3.6 Optical Measurements Optical transmittance and reflectance for thin film have been measured using a double beam (Shimadzu UV-160A) Spectrophotometer. Values of the absorption coefficient (α) of the absorption coefficient (α) for the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 (where x=0 ,0.1 ,0.2 & 0.3at.%) thin film were calculated from the Transmittance T and Reflectance R. According to Tauc's relation for the allowed non-direct
transition, the photon energy dependence absorption coefficient can be described by (α hυ )1 2 = B (h − E0 )
Where is n a parameter that depend on transition probability and Eo is the optical energy Values of Eo were taken as the intercept of straight (αhυ)1/2 versus hυ line with the energy where hυ is the photon energy .
(3.9) the gap. the axis
Figure (3-13) Shimadzu UV-160A) Spectrophotometer 3.7 Electrical Measurements In order to measure the electrical conductivity of the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 (where x=0 ,0.1 ,0.2 & 0.3at.%) thin films two gold planar electrode with spacing 0.1 cm and length1.4 cm as shown in Fig (3-13)
Figure (3-14) Gold planar electrodes. The D.C conductivity has been measured for thin film samples. By measuring Sheet resistance for these films. The resistance value is given by equation R=
Where d is the thickness, b is the length of electrode and L is the distance between electrodes. If (L=b), then equation (3.4) becomes R=
So that the resistance Rs of one square of film is independent of the size of the square but depend only on resistivity ρ and thickness. The quantity Rs of the film and is expressed in ohms per square cm. It is a very useful quantity that is widely used for comparing films, particularly those of the same material deposited under similar conditions. If the thickness is known, the resistivity, is readily obtained from
ρ = dRs
The electrical measurements were carried out in a dry nitrogen atmosphere using a specially designed system capable of measuring resistance, Fig (3-14) shows a block diagram of the circuit used for measuring electrical conductivity.
Figure (3-15) Construction used for controlling the temperature of the sample in the Range from room temperature to liquid nitrogen.
Figure (3-16) Block diagram of the circuit used for measuring electrical Conductivity
i) Preparation of Thin Film for Switching After testing many types of substrate materials, pyrographite was chosen as a suitable substrate for thin film evaporation for switching measurements. One surface of each substrate is highly polished using three different grades of A1203, finishing with the finest. The polished substrates were washed several times with boiled distilled water followed by alcohol to remove all traces connected to them during the polishing process. After cleaning the substrates, they were dried in a furnace at moderate temperature.
Preparation of thin film samples was performed according to the following procedure: Chalcogenide glass of the considered composition was first crushed into small grains and introduced into the cleaned dry silica boat which was put in its place inside the electrical spiral heater. The highly polished pyrographite plane substrates were placed horizontally on the copper mask, inside the holes with the polished surfaces facing tungestun boat. The distance between the substrate and the upper end of the boat was adjusted to be 14cm. The bell jar was fixed in its place and the vacuum system was turned ON until the vacuum inside the bell jar reached (10-6) torr. At such an evacuation value, the tungestun boat which was heated to a sufficiently high temperature ensures that evaporation occurs at a suitable rate. The thickness of the prepared thin film samples was measured by using the thickness monitor type “TM200”.
Cleaned tungestun boat every time before evaporation by using hydrochloric acid
Washing several times with boiled distilled water and dried in furnace whose temperature was about 100 °C
Edward 306E coating unit was used for thin film deposition at a pressure of 10-6 torr
The heating of the tungestun boat was achieved by spiral tungsten wire
The distance between the substrate and upper ends of the boat was adjusted to be 14cm
The vacuum system was turned ON until the vacuum inside the bell jar reached 10-6 torr
During the deposition process (at normal incidence), the substrate (Pyrographite) were suitably rotated in order to obtain films of uniform thickness
The thickness of the prepared thin film samples was measured by using thickness monitor
Figure (3-17) Design flow for Preparation of thin film amorphous InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 for switching
A special cell has been constructed for switching measurements. The cell is made of Teflon block in order to
give high insulation. The complete assembly is shown in Fig (3-18). A longitudinal groove is made to accommodate the upper copper rod electrode with a spring around the rod so that it could freely move up or down against the spring. A carbon needle is fixed at the lower end of the copper electrode. A copper disc is used as a lower electrode which is embedded in the Teflon block and it is centered with the longitudinal axis of the upper electrode. The thin film sample on the pyrographite substrate is placed between the carbon needle and copper disc electrode of the measuring cell so that the spring will ensure good contact all the time. Fig (3-19) illustrated the measuring circuits which are connected across the cell.
Figure (3-18) A special cell construction for I-V measurements 1-Spring 2-Cylinder copper 3-Terminal 4-Copper nut 5-Copper rod 6-Carbon needle 7-Sample 8-Lower electrode 9-Teflon
Figure (3-19) A Simple Circuit used for measuring I-V characteristics D.C
The resistance R in the circuit is a limiting current one, used to protect the thin film against over current during the ON state. Increasing the voltage applied to the switch device. Leads to a slow increase of the current passing through it. At a certain value of the applied voltage, the current increases while the voltage across the switch decreases. This value of the applied voltage is the switching voltage vs. the reading of the voltmeter and micrometer were recorded and plotted for each sample.
3.8 Spectrophotometer Measurements UV/VIS UVIKON 860 a double beam spectrometer was used to measure the optical density (absorbance). It mainly consists of a mono chromator that covers the range
of wavelength from 190–800 800 µm, beam splitter, detection and recording system, the whole system is computer controlled. The light source is a quartz halogen lamp integrated with a system of mirrors, a filter wheel; the beam
Figure (3-20) SP8 -200 Optical Diagrams. is then splitted into two beams to pass through the samples and the reference. Fig (3-20)) shows the optics layout of the used spectrophotometer. The infrared absorption spectra of the studied glass samples were measured using Fourier transform (FTIR) Unicam Mattson–1000 1000 spectrophotometer in conjunction with KBr disc technique over the spectral range of 400 400– -1 6000 cm . All infrared measurements were carried out in room ambiance. Glass samples of 2 mg were thoroughly mixed and ground with 200 mg KBr, after which the mixture was pressed at 7.5 tons/cm2 for 60 minutes under vacuum to yield transparent discs for mounting and absorption spectra measurement measurements.
3.9 Gamma Irradiation Source The gamma irradiator is housed in a shielding building, Fig (3-21), constructed upon a ground of standard density concrete (2.36 g/cc), having thickness about 120cm, so that no one receives more than 10 mr of radiation during 40 hours/week, or the maximum dose rate would not exceed 0.2 mr on all accessible when 1,000,000 curie cobalt radiation source is utilized. The new irradiation facility, Egypt's MEGA, gamma I, supplied as type J-6500 by the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, has been furnished with a cobalt–60 source. The source consists of a large planar array of encapsulated Co60 rods 0.18 cm in diameter and 20.96 cm in length. Two of such source rod elements are inserted each double–walled stainless steel pencil of external dimension 1.11 cm in diameter, and 45.2 cm in length. The pencils are inserted in planar modules 47.5 x 49.5 cm. The source rack is composed of six modules each having 42 source pencils and the maximum plaque capacity 252 pencils. The samples were fixed facing the source at a distance of 15 cm. At each position, the dose rate was 5.56 Gray / sec. At the time of the present measurements. The thin film samples were irradiated at room temperature, and the absorbed dose was measured by using standard calibrated Perspex dosimeter.
Figure (3-21)) J6500 Irradiator
Results & Discussions
Chapter 4 Results & Discussions This chapter deals with the experimental results, of In xSn20 Se(60-x)Bi20,investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) for the powder and thin film at constant thickness 100 nm .The surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). 4.1 X-ray Diffraction Identification of Bulk Samples. The X-ray diffraction technique was used to investigate the structure and character of our system In x Sn20 Se(60-x)Bi20 ,(where x=0,0.1,0.2 and 0.3%) .The X-ray diffraction patterns of the amorphous prepared Samples are shown in Fig (4-1)
Figure (4-1) X -Ray Diffraction patterns of bulk sample of the system InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20, (where x=0,0.1,0.2 and 0.3at.%)
Results & Discussions
The patterns show the characteristic diffraction peaks which reflect the absence of regular crystalline structure. Such a diffraction pattern characterizes the pure amorphous state of the investigated samples. The X-ray diffraction technique is considered to be as complementary to differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique and ensures that all the prepared samples of our system are amorphous. The diffraction patterns show a two stepped humps around the Bragg's angles; 4-8 and15-28 degrees (2θ), respectively. The second hump has the highest intensity and occupies the largest angular range. This means that this second step possesses the highest contribution of diffracting atomic planes in the present domains.
4.2 Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) Samples prepared in both powder and thin film forms; have to be checked out compositionally from the following three points (i) the type of constituent elements forming the samples, (ii) the atomic percentage of each constituent element and finally(iii)the sample homogeneity.
The adequate analysis for checking out the former three points is the EDX analysis, because of many reasons, the most important are: • When the specimen is subjected to the energetic electron beam (20keV), the resulting characteristic X-rays from the specimen are emitted from the transitions of the inner shells electrons, as any of such electrons is dislodged from its shell. So, the emitted X-ray energy is independent of any type of bonds existing between the outer shells-sharingelectrons. Therefore, characteristic X-rays spectrum is the element fingerprint which confirms the type of the constituent element regardless of its chemical bonding. • The collected X-ray spectrum is in the form of X-ray energy in keV against the number of counts collected in a certain acquisition time, as shown in the illustrative example Fig.(4-2,3),where it can be noticed that the controlled number of counts is not a sharp line at certain X-ray energy, but rather it is a symmetrical Gaussian–shaped curve about the energy value where the area under curve can be used statistically to determine the atomic percentage of each element and thus its concentration. • The EDX allows checking of the sample homogeneity, by collecting X-ray from sample at random areas and comparing their results.
Results & Discussions
4.2.1 Scanning electron microscope technique The morphology of the samples can be investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).The sample was fractured and gold coated before SEM examination to study the internal morphology as well as the surface. The scanning micrographs of specimens of different compositions are shown in Fig (4.4.a) shows which the SEM micrographs of Se-Bi-Sn film deposited at room temperature .The film consisted of individual grains, which are irregular in size and shape and separated by welldefined inter-grain boundaries. A similar image contrast has also been observed in other thin films of amorphous elemental and compound semiconductor.
By adding Indium in Fig (4-4b) further separation of the surrounding media gives rise to large grains in size then large grains can be seen in fig(4.4c) for partially crystallite at x=0.2 at %. In Fig (4-4d) the grain sizes become smaller for x=0.3 at % and the number of grains become larger
Results & Discussions
Figure (4-4) A SEM photograph of Sn20Se(60-x)Bi20 (a) bulk, (b) where x=0.1%, (c) where x=0.2 % , (d) where x= 0.3 %.
Results & Discussions
4.3 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) The two categories of materials useful for threshold and memory devices, respectively, are (A) those whose structure does not change during the device operation and (B) those whose structure can be changed in a controlled and reproducible manner.
Real materials only approximate these idealized situations, and other factors besides composition affect the stability and reproducibility of non- crystalline solids in devices, such as contact, the substrate materials, and preparation and surface conditions. Stable vitreous semiconductors of type (A) are found among the threedimensionally cross-linked chalcogenide alloy glasses. There appear to be specific compositions in each glassforming system which are particularly stable by having an optimum number of stable bonds and cross linked chalcogenide alloy glasses. There appear to be specific compositions in each glass- forming system which are particularly stable by having an optimum number of stable bonds and crosslink. They can be heated to the molten state and slowly cooled without devitrication or phase separation. Increasing the number of component of similar bond strength in a glass stabilizes its structure. At the same time, however, the numbers of possible compositions increases, which may phase separate. An extensive study of stability and the extent of glass forming regions chalcogenide alloys have been performed by Hilton, Joes. Brau (1964,1966a,1966b) .
Results & Discussions
Figure (4-5) DTA measurements for In XSn20Se 60-x Bi20 glasses heating rate 10c/min. An endothermic peak in the DTA curve results from an increase in specific heat at the glass transition temperature Tg. The absence of any sharp exothermic peak in the DTA curve is good indicator for the absence of the structural changes as shown in Fig(4-5). 4.4 The density dependence of (In) content The density of the as prepared glasses of the system InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 films has been determined by the hydrostatic method with an accuracy of ±0.05%. The obtained results are given in table (4-1) where it is noticed that the density decreases by increasing In from 5.712 gm/cm3 for the composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 at x=0% down to 4.682 gm/cm3 for composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 at
Results & Discussions
x=0.03%. The atomic volume of In is greater than that of Se which means that the molecular weight of a given volume increases by increasing In content. In at%
Table (4-1) the composition dependence of density. As it is known, the change of density is related to the change in the atomic weight and the atomic volume of the elements constituting the system. The atomic weights of Sn, Se, Bi and In are 118.69 , 78.96 , 208.980 and 114.82 and their respectively, atomic radii are1.62 , 1.40,1.70,1.66 respectively. Fig (4-2) represents the relation between the density and In content. It is clear that there is a linear dependence up to a volume of almost 30%In. It does not change appreciably.
5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.6 0.00
In content at.%
Figure (4-6) Dependence of density on In content in the system InxSn20Se60-xBi20 (with x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3at%).
Results & Discussions
Some physical parameters of Sn, Se, Bi and In elements are given in Table (4-2). Ioffe and Regel  have suggested that the bonding character in the nearest neighbor region, which is the coordination number, characterizes the electronic properties of the semiconducting materials. The coordination number obeys the so-called 8-N rule, where N is the valency of an atom; the number of the nearest-neighbour atoms for Sn ,Bi ,Se and In are calculated and listed in table(4-2). The average coordination number in the quaternary compounds AαBβCγDλ is as:
N co =
α N co ( A) + β N co ( B ) + γ N co (C ) + λ N co ( D ) (α + β + γ + λ )
where α, β ,γ ,λ are the valencies of the elements of compound The determination of Nco allows the estimation of the number constraints (Ns). This parameter is closely related to the glass-transition temperature and associated properties. For a material with coordination number Nco , Ns can be expressed as the sum of the radial and angular valence force constraints., NS =
N CO + (2 N CO − 3) 2
The calculated values of Nco and Ns for the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20system ,using the elemental coordination number of Sn, Se ,Bi and In given in Table 1.are listed in Table( 4-3).
Results & Discussions
Physical characteristics Energy gap (eV) Density(g/Cm3) coordination no. Bond energy(kcal/mol) Hs(kcal/mol) Electro negativity Radius(pm) C.E(eV/atom)
0.15 7.30 3 44.65 72.07 1.8 145 3.13
1.95 4.79 2 30.9 54.17 2.4 115 2.45
0.407 9.8 3 44.02 49.40 1.9 160 2.17
1.74 7.31 3 24.2 58.23 1.7 155 2.51
Table (4-2) Shows values of the optical band gap, density, coordination number, heat of atomization (Hs), bond energy and electro negativities of Sn ,Bi, Se and In respectively which are used for calculations. In content at.% 0 0.1 0.2 0.3
Nco 2.6 2.601 2.602 2.603
NS 3.5 3.5025 3.5050 3.5075
Table (4-3) The average coordination number (Nco) and the constraints number (Ns) as function of In content of InxSn20Se (60-x)Bi20 glasses.
4.5 The Effect of In Content on Conductivity. The dependence of ln σ on the reciprocal temperature in the range (-110oC to 85oC) is illustrated in Fig (4-7). All samples exhibit common patterns, where two regions of conductivity are observed. The activation energy, pre-exponential factors of the two regions were estimated and listed in Table (4-4)
Table (4-4) Compositional dependence of the electrical characteristic quantities for the thin film glasses in the system InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 where x= 0 , 0.1 , 0.2 and 0.3 at constant thickness 100 nm.
Results & Discussions
-1 6 -1 8
X = 0 .0 % x = 0 .1 % x = 0 .2 % x = 0 .3 %
-2 0 -2 2 -2 4
-2 6 -2 8 -3 0 -3 2 -3 4 -3 6 2 .0
1 0 0 0 /T K
Figure (4-7) Variation of ln (σ) vs reciprocal absolute temperature for films of Inx Sn20 Se(60-x)Bi20 where x= 0 , 0.1 , 0.2 and 0.3 %at constant thickness 100nm. The values obtained for the first region σ0×10-2 suggest that the conduction mechanism in the high temperature region is band like conduction through extended states . It is also observed that σ decreases with the decrease of temperature which gives an indication for the increase of density of localized states. Similar behavior has also been observed for Sn-Se-Bi-In composition by Majid . Figure (4-8) illustrates the effect of In content on the value of σ .It is clear that σ has a linear inverse relation with In content. This indicates that addition of In leads to an increase of both the density of localized states. To check the validity of compensation law, the pre-exponential factor σ against the activation energy ∆E is shown in Figure (4-9). .
Results & Discussions
σ (Ω cm )*10
0 .0 0 .0 0
0 .0 5
0 .1 0
0 .1 5
0 .2 0
0 .2 5
0 .3 0
In C ontent %
Figure (4-8) Variation of σ as a function of In content. 0 .5
σ (Ω cm )*10
0 .0 0.0
∆ Ε ( ev)
Figure (4-9) Variation of σ as a function of activation energy.
The observed linear dependence indicates that SnSe-Bi-In obeys the compensation law [97-98]. Such behavior was also observed by Majid . However, it is worth mentioning that Mott and Davis argued that there is
Results & Discussions
no definite correlation between the intercept σ and the activation energy ∆E as shown in Fig (4-9). The values of ∆E decrease linearly by increasing In content as shown in Fig (4-10). This effect is most likely due to the reduction of the average binding energy by In addition. To check this argument, the cohesive energy C.E. was calculated for the investigated four compositions, Table 4.4. It is clear that C.E. increases by decreasing In content which is in good agreement with the above assumptions. 1.0 2.8200 0.8
2.8185 0.2 2.8180 0.0 0.00
Figure (4-10) Variation of activation energy and cohesive energy as a function of In content. On the other hand, in the low temperature range of Fig (4-7), it seems that the dominant mechanism is the hopping around Fermi level. This assumption is based on the values of σ2 obtained. The values obtained for the pre-exponential factor of the second region ensure the fact that such
Results & Discussions
systems behave as heavily doped semiconductors. It is worth mentioning that the variable range hopping is not favorable in chalcogenide glasses based on ESR and magnetic susceptibility. 4.6 Switching Characteristics of Amorphous Semiconductor It is now clear that the threshold switching which characterizes thin films of multi component chalcogenide glasses, first reported by Ovshinsky , represents qualitatively different phenomena with unique properties. When voltage is first applied to a switching device the resistance is very high, this is called the off state. If an applied voltage, VS, known as the threshold voltage, is exceeded, the device switches into a low resistance state. The ON state current-voltage characteristic is non ohmic, the dynamic resistance being of the order of 10 ohms. As long as a minimum voltage, Vh, known as holding voltage is maintained through the device, it stays in the on state, if the voltage falls below Vh, corresponding to the holding current Ih, the device returns to the off state. Since the switching process takes place in a very short time (10-10 sec), it was difficult to record any reading during this time. We could only record current and voltage before switching and their values after the switching process. Adler  has reviewed the experimental results on threshold switching in thin films of chalcogenide glass. Peterson and Adler  have presented a model for the recovery of the off state after the holding voltage is removed from a chalcogenide glass threshold switch. Also, this model is used to predict quantitatively the resistance of the device as a function of time for several different values
Results & Discussions
of the operating current. Marshall and Owen  have developed a model for carrier transport on the basis of accumulation-regime field-effect data and transient photo conductivity measurements for composition InxSn20Se(60x)Bi20. Marshall  has employed the field effect data to calculate the screening length of composition InxSn20Se(60xBi20. Homma, Henisch and Ovshinsky  have made systematic and detailed comparison between the threshold switching properties of a typical ovonic threshold material (InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20) and a non–chalcogenide alloy (Cd23 Ge12 As65) of nearly equal band gap but higher conductivity. Their results show great similarities and, in this way, suggest that no special role is played by lone pair electrons in the mechanism of threshold switching as such. On the other hand, the lone pair band in the chalcogenide alloy may be responsible for its much higher degree of stability, i.e., its ability to withstand the intense excitation levels prevailing in the on state. Also, their results provide further evidence against thermal interpretations and thereby support electronic models of threshold switching for both materials. The specimens employed in the present study were prepared by evaporation of chalcogenide material onto substrate of pyrographite. The details of specimen preparation and the measuring mechanism are represented in Chapter 3. Fig (4-11) shows the current-voltage characteristics for four compositions in the system (Inx Sn20Se(60-x)Bi20 ) where x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3. From this Figure, it is clear that composition (Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 ) where x=0.3% has the highest threshold voltage Vs =5.5 V
Results & Discussions
Figure (4-11) (I-V) Characteristics of D.C switching for the films InxSn20 Se(60-x)Bi20 at constant thickness 100nm.
Table 4.5 Switching characteristics of the composition InxSn20 Se(60-x)Bi20 where x=0, 0.1,0.2 and0.3%at constant thickness 100nm. 4.6.1 Temperature dependence of Switching Characteristics Current-voltage measurements have been carried out on the two extreme films x=0 and x= 0.3 with a thickness of 100 nm in a temperature range between 295 and 305 K. The obtained results for these two compositions are given in Fig (4-12) and Table (4-6). Since the switching process
Results & Discussions
takes place in a very short time (∼ 10-9 sec), it is impossible to record any reading during this time. We could only record current and voltage at switching and their respective values after the switching process had been accomplished.
Figure (4-12) Static I-V Characteristics curves for x=0, 0.3at.% thin film sample at thickness 100 nm at different ambient temperature T. Films of the two compositions (x= 0, 0.3) exhibit the same features. In both films it is observed that Vs decreases and the switching current increases by increasing the film temperature. This indicates the thermal nature of the switching process in the studied compositions of the chalcogenide glass. In such case one should consider the concept of filament. The latter is simply the path of the current inside the films which is considered to be branched paths. The temperature of such filament path is higher than that of the film. It was impossible to record any reading
Results & Discussions
during this time. We could only record current and voltage at switching and their respective values after the switching process had been accomplished. Temperature inside the filament in the active part of the switch is calculated at the threshold voltage and after switching for I-V characteristics of both compositions at room temperature using the following relation: T = TO +
where Q = Switching power=ISVS. Tο = ambient temperature. λ = thermal conductivity for the substrate, taken to be 0.009 cal/m.sec.°C d = thin film thickness. Values of temperature calculated from experimental static I-V characteristics at room temperature at the moment of switching and after switching as well as the corresponding values of current passing through the switch are given in Table (4-6) for the two compositions x=0, 0.3 of thickness 100 nm. It is found that the addition of In causes decrease of switching current and switching voltage with the increase of ambient temperature.
Results & Discussions
Ratio% At(vs) X=0 X=0.3
After At(vs) switching
Table 4.6 Values of filament temperature at Vs and after switching as calculated from experimental (I-V) curves and the corresponding values of current for samples of the composition Inx Sn20Se(60-x) Bi20 where x= 0, 0.3 at thickness 100 nm. The obtained results can be summarized as follows: Raising the temperature improves the switching characteristics as Vs decreases and Is increases. In other words, raising temperature facilitates switching. On the other hand, the addition of In reduces the filament temperature. This in turn reduces the switching ability. Such effect is consistent with the previously obtained and above mentioned result. 4.7 Theoretical Study of I-V Characteristics of Switching The switching process observed in amorphous semiconductor may be explained by various models. These models are categorized into homogenous and heterogenous models. In the former, the semiconducting film is assumed to remain essentially homogenous and amorphous during switching. In the former, the semiconducting film is assumed to remain essentially homogenous and amorphous during switching . In the later, a structure change of the amorphous material takes place in the region of high
Results & Discussions
current filament and it does not return to its original amorphous state if the device is switched off. All evidences suggest that the forming process creates in the filament region a new material whose properties have little relation to the original material . According to the homogenous model, several trials in the available literature can explain, the switching process according to thermal theory . As it was mentioned resistance of chalcogenide glasses is given by equation (4.5): R = Const .EXP (
Eσ ) 2 KT
This equation can be obtained in the following form: V E 1 1 = R (T ) = R (TO ) EXP ( − ) I 2 K T TO
Where R(TO ) is the resistance at the ambient temperature TO . If we take active region of the material under investigation in the form of a sphere of diameter ''d'' embedded in a spherical infinite medium of thermal conductivity ''λ''. The relation between the temperature increase produced in the active region and the power(IV) generated within it can be obtained in the form T = TO +
Results & Discussions
where Q =IV, The power generated inside the active region of the device. λ =the thermal conductivity of substrate material. d =is the thickness of thin film sample. E 1 1 V Ln( ) = LnR(TO ) + σ ( − ) I 2 K T TO LnV − LnI − LnR (TO ) =
Eσ 1 1 ( − ) 2 K T TO
1 1 LnV − LnI − LnR (TO ) = B ( − ) T TO
1 1 1 [ LnV − LnI − LnR (TO )] + ( ) = B TO T
where B = Eσ . Temperature inside the active region 2K
equation (4-4) can be obtained in the form: T =(
2πλ d IV (2πλ d + IV ) )To + ( )= = ( MTO + IV ) M 2πλ d 2πλ d 2πλ d
Where M=2πλd. By substituting for T in equation (4-11) we obtain 1 1 [ LnV − LnI − LnR (TO )] + ( ) = ( MTO + IV ) M B TO
1 1 [ LnV − LnI − LnR (TO )] + ( ) = ( MTO + IV ) M = 0 B TO
Results & Discussions
Using iteration method, a numerical solution for equation was carried out to obtain values of current corresponding to values of the applied voltage for all samples prepared from the composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 . To solve equation (44), we used experimental "λ'' and the activation energy of the considered composition. The used for λ the value 0.009cal/cm.sec co. 4.7.1 The Suggested switching model The obtained results concerning switching properties allow us to suggest a model, if we consider the atoms in chalcogenide glass as balls of different sizes, which are interacted in different ways. In other words, they can be considered as set of coupled oscillators corresponding to a set of force constants. One should keep in mind that such force constants are distributed randomly. In such case one cannot treat every bond (force constant) separately. Then a statistical approach by calculating the cohesive energy C.E. If C.E. is high, the incoming electric pulse will not affect the atomic position .In such case the incoming pulse will affect electrons. The latter is characterized by fast (short life time) transitions giving rise to switching phenomena. On the other hand, in case of low C.E., the incoming pulse leads to atomic displacement to another metastable position giving rise to memory effect. Such suggestions agree with the experimentally observed data where the switching rise time increases by decreasing C.E .i.e., approach memory behavior are shown in Figure (4-13). .
Results & Discussions
Table (4-7) illustrates the relation between cohesive energy C.E and rise time tr For samples of the composition Inx Sn20Se(60-x)Bi20 at constant thickness 100nm. InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 X=0% X=0.1% X=0.2% X=0.3%
Cohesive energy (eV) 2.560 2.369 2.250 2.134
Rise time tr 25 40 100 200
Table 4.7 Values of rise time and cohesive energy for samples of the composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 (where x=0,0.1,0.2&0.3at.%)
220 200 180
Rise time (ns)
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 2.1
Cohesive energy (e.v)
Figure (4-13) Relation between rise time and cohesive energy.
Results & Discussions
4.8 Optical Band Gap of In-Se-Sn-Bi Thin Films Transmittance spectra corresponding to the system Inx Sn20 Se(60-x)Bi20 where x=0, 0.1 ,0.2 , and 0.3 at % thin film are plotted in Fig (4-14), showing a clear red shift of the interference-free region with increasing In content.
X=0.0% X=0.1% X=0.2% X=0.3%
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 400
Figure (4-14) Transmission spectra of InxSn2Se(6-X)Bi2 thin film (where x=0 ,0.1 ,0.2 and0.3 at%). Values of the absorption coefficient(α)for the studied films were calculated from the transmittance T and reflectance R according to the equation(4-15). α=
1 2T 2 d ln[(1 − R ) + (1 − R ) 4 + 4 R 2T 2 ]
Results & Discussions
d is the film thickness. Figure(4-14) shows that the calculated valueof the absorption coefficient (α) for the investigated InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 (Where x=0,0.1,0.2 and 0.3%) thin films. 0.006
x=0.0 % x=0.1% x=0.2% x=0.3%
α( cm )
Figure 4.15 Absorption coefficient (α) versus photon energy (hυ) for the Inx Sn20 Se(60-x)Bi20thin films. Analysis of the optical absorption data indicates that the optical band gap (E0) of the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 thin films obeys Tauc’s relation for the allowed non-direct transitions. (α hυ )1 2 = B(hυ − E0 )
where B is a parameter that depend on the transition probability and E0 is the optical energy gap.
Results & Discussions
0.14 0.12 2 / 1
(((( α )))) ((((
m c 2 / 1
x=0.0% x=0.1 % x=0.2 % x=0.3 %
0.02 0.00 1
Figure (4-16) Shows a typical best fit of (αhυ)1/2Vs.photon energy(hυ)for the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20thin film. The intercepts of the straight lines with the photon energy axis at (αhυ) 1/2=0 give the values of the optical band gap (E0). The variation of Eg as function of In content is depicted in Figure (4-17).From this figure, it is clear that Eg decreases with increasing In content of the investigated glasses.
Results & Discussions
5 4 3 2 1 0 0.00
Figure (4-17) The variation in the optical band gap (E0 ) as function of In content of the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 thin films. The bond energies D(A-B) for heteronuclear bonds have been calculated by using the empirical relation: D( A − B) = D( A − A).D( B − B)1 2 + 30(γ A − γ B )2
Where D(A-A) and D(B-B) are the energies of the homonuclear bonds (in units of Kcal/mol); χA and χB are the electro negativities for the involved atoms.
Table 4.8 Bond energy probabilities and relative probabilities of formation of various bonds in Inx Sn20 Se (60-x) Bi20 Films, taking the probability of Sn-Se bond as unity. Knowing the bond energies, we can estimate the cohesive energy (CE) i.e., the stabilization energy of an infinitely large cluster of the materials per atom, by summing the bond energies over all the bonds expected in the system under test . The (CE) of the prepared samples is evaluated from the following equation: CE = ∑ (Ci Di /100)
Where Ci and Di are the number of the expected chemical bonds and the energy of each corresponding bond. The calculated values of CE for all compositions are presented in Table 4.4 with the exception of InxSn20Se(60x)Bi20 glass, CE increases with increasing In content. Increasing the In content leads to an increase in the average molecular weight.
Results & Discussions
4.9 Thermal and Radiation–induced defects in thin film devices Turnbull  and Rudee  had pointed out that the mode of the amorphous to crystalline transformation yields information about the amorphous phase structure. Two techniques are used to study the phase transition in chalcogenide glasses, the isothermal technique and non isothermal technique. The methods of differential thermal analysis (DTA) has been universally accepted by mineralogical laboratories as a rapid and convenient means for recording the thermal effects that occur as a sample is heated.
4.10 Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on Optical Band Gap The γ- radiation had no a noticeable effect, for a dose of 15 µRad showed an constant value in the transmittance upon the addition of In.
4.10.1 Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on Threshold Switches Threshold switches devices were exposed to different doses up to 15 Mrad for glasses x=0 and x=0.3 at %. Ionization radiation did not cause any significant effects for I-V characteristics at room temperature. This work agrees with Nicolaedes  which had measured switching and memory characteristics of doped and undoped devices, prepared by flash evaporation onto a glass substrate of a mixture premelted Sn20 Se(60-x)Bi20 subjected to neutron irradiation up to1015 m/cm2(>10KeV).
Results & Discussions
They had found that no changes in the electrical characteristics of the threshold switching devices were noted after neutron irradiation.
4.11 Modern Applications of InxSn20Se60-xBi20 Since amorphous chalcogenide s.c. are characterized by their favourable electrical properties, low room temperature conductivities and suitable optical properties, the investigated system InxSn20Se60-xBi20 is advantageous in application to modern devices. The compound InxSn20Se60-xBi20 has a suitable optical band gap that lies between 0.7 – 1.7 eV and this range corresponds to the visible optical range. The optical band gap is either low or high. When it is low, the composition is used as an absorption layer in solar cell construction and photocells. If it is high, the composition is used as a window in the IR range, therefore, it is used as a window in IR detection devices. Moreover, the investigated composition has proved to have a high absorption coefficient 104 cm-1 which enables it to absorb the highest amount of light falling on it. It is also characterized by its low thermal expansion coefficient with thermal stability, thus it neither expands nor shrinks which makes it convenient for application in solar cells that require high thermal stability. In the investigated composition, the increase of In content caused an increase in the switching rise time that reached 200 nsec and a decrease in the cohesive energy, thus improving the switching characteristics of the system. The composition InxSn20Se60-xBi20 showed good electrical threshold switching characteristics and the power threshold
Results & Discussions
switching did not exceed 11 watt, thus encouraging its application as a threshold switching device in computer memory arrays, display devices, optical mass memories, thin film transistors, solar cells, and electrophotographic units. Such results satisfy the need for cheap and reliable materials for different technological applications which scientists seek to apply in rectifiers, photocells, switching and memory devices, detectors and sensors, optical fibres, solar cells, and nanotechnology. To meet the challenge of the need for chemical information in the fields of environmental protection, medical diagnosis as well as chemical process control, food inspection,…etc., a great variety of chemical microsensors are currently being developed. The composition InxSn20Se60-xBi20 here with under study can be applied in the production of different types of sensors for environmental applications.
Figure (4-18) Array of Sensors of the composition InxSn20Se60-xBi20
Results & Discussions
Chalcogenide semiconductors have been advanced recently to the point where they compete favorably with silicon-based devices which are impractically expensive for solar power conversion. Chalcogenide semiconductors for solar cells are made by anodizing Bi in a S, Se, Te electrolyte. They are relatively inexpensive.
Figure (4-19) Solar Cell Array It has also been found that the composition InxSn20Se60-xBi20 was almost stable against gamma radiation with doses up to 15 MRad, which makes it useful as a shield in the components of devices used in gamma radiation. 4.12 Trends for Future Work The present work can be extended to implement amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors by different gases with the same the same components i.e., Sn, Se, Bi and In.
Results & Discussions
Such compositions can find some applications as laser power transmission for industrial welding operations and also for microsurgery. Co2 surgical laser operating at 10.6µm have relied on bulky articulated arms to deliver the beam to a micromanipulator and on to the site for surgery. Chalcogenide fibers such as Sn-Se-Bi may replace them as a compact fibre optic competitor. Produce some economical chalcogenide composition for solar cells. Production of wide IR windows of chalcogenide with high resolution of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry as a remote sensing of gases/liquids is another.
Summary & conclusion
Chapter 5 Summary & Conclusion The concept of point defects in amorphous materials is now well established and they are known to influence the electrical and optical properties in much the same way as they do in crystalline semiconductors. Also, the states deeper in the energy gap can be classified as extrinsic, in the sense that they arise from point defects whose density is a strong function of preparation conditions or postdeposition treatments.
Hence, we have made examination of the structure, micro structure and related properties of their amorphous film devices of the compositions under examination. Four glasses of the system Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 where x=0,0.1,0.2& 0.3 had been prepared from highly pure Indium, Tin, Selenium and Bithmus (99.9999%purity) elements by melting the constituents together under vacuum(10-6torr) in precleaned silica tubes at900C for about 10 hours and subsequently quenching in liquid nitrogen. The product ingots were confirmed to be amorphous and homogenous by X-ray diffraction pattern (Co-Kα source) , and by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The main results can be summarized as follows: 1. The thin film Samples proved to have an amorphous structure.
Summary & conclusion 2. The density decreasing by increasing In content from 5.712 gm/cm3 for the composition at x=0% down to 4.682 gm/cm3 for composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 at x=0.03%but does not lead to any change in the competence of atom. 3. It was found that the electrical conductivity σo decreases with the decreases of temperature which is an indication for the increase of density of localized states. it was also observed that there is an inverse linear relation between the conductivity and In content. 4. The electrical activation energy(∆E) was found to decrease linearly from1.60 ev to 0.79 ev by increasing the In content from x=0 in the composition InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20.On the other hand, addition of In has almost no effect on Se bonds .It is worth noting that the cohesive energy increases linearly with increasing the In content from2.8186 at x=0% to 2.82 at x=0.3% at const thickness100nm. 5. The addition of In has led to an increase in both the threshold voltage (Vs) and threshold current (Is) from 1.5 volt and 1.0 µA respectively at x=0 up to 5.5 volt and 2 µA respectively at x=0.3 for constant film thickness d=100nm. 6. As for the holding voltage (Vh), it was found to increase with the increase of either In content from 0.4 volt at x=0 to 2.0 volt at x=0.3.On the contrary, the increase of In content has caused a decrease in the holding current (Ih) from 45µA at x=0 to19 µA at x=0.3 for a constant thickness 100nm.
Summary & conclusion 7. It was proved that the threshold power increased by increasing either In content, This mean that the quality of switching is reduced by increasing the In content. The addition of In content increase the cohesive energy and consequently affects the switching properties.
8. Raising the film temperature improved the switching characteristics where the threshold voltage decreased and the threshold current increases. Also, the addition of In reduced the filament temperature, thus reducing the switching ability. 9. Increasing the In content from x=0 to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 led to an increase in the switching rise time from tr =25 to 40, 100 and 200 and 200 nano second respectively and a decrease in the cohesive energy from C.E=2.8186 to 2.8192 ,2.8199 and 2.820ev respectively. These results indicate that composition Inx Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20 shows good electrical threshold switching results and promises a useful threshold switching device in computer applications. 10. In the same manner, the X-ray diffraction technique proved the absence of any regular crystalline structure which ensured the composition Inx Sn20Se(60-x)Bi20 to be pure amorphous. 11. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) Measurements showed that the glass transition temperature Tg increased with increasing In content. The absence of any sharp exothermic peak proved the absence of structural changes.
Summary & conclusion 12. The values of the optical energy gap Eopt were found to decrease with increasing In content which could be due to the fact that In has a metallic behavior. 13. The γ- radiation had a noticeable effect, for a dose of 15 µRad showed an constant value in the transmittance upon the addition of In. 14. The investigated system proved to be advantageous in application to infrared imaging objectives.
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Effect of In addition on some physical properties of Sn20Se(60-x) Bi20 amorphous films H.H.Amer1,A. Abdel-Mongy2,A.A.Abdel-wahab1
Solid State Department ,National Center For Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo ,Egypt.
Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University ,Ain Helwan ,Cairo, Egypt.
ABSTRACT The present paper reports the effect of replacement of selenium by indium on the optical gap and some other physical parameters of new quaternary chalcogenide InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 at. %) thin films. Thin films with thickness 100 nm of InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 were prepared by thermal evaporation of the bulk samples. Increasing indium content is found to affect the average heat of atomization, the average coordination number, the number of constraints and the cohesive energy of the InxSn20Se(60-x)Bi20 alloys. Optical absorption measurements showed that the fundamental absorption edge is a function of composition. The optical absorption is due to allowed non-direct transition and the energy gap decreases with the increase of indium content. The chemical bond approach has been applied successfully to interpret the decrease of the optical gap with increasing indium content. The prepared films were irradiated by gamma rays at doses up to 15Mrad. It was found that the compositions were almost stable against gamma radiation. Keywords: amorphous, chalcogenide, optical properties.
Summery in Arabic
الملخص العربي لقد كان موضوع اشباه الموصالت االمورفية ذو اھمية كبيرة في السنوات القليلة الماضيةويعتبر مجال حيوي في علم الجوامد.وفي العشرة سنوات الماضية تم التركيز علي اشباة الموصالت االمورفية وبخاصة تلك المعروفة بزجاجيات الشالكوجنية والتي يتم فحص تركيبھا باستخدام جھاز حيود االشعة السينية ويتم تأكيد طبيعتھا االمورفية بأستخدم جھاز حيود التحليل الحراري التفاضلي ھذه المركبات تتميز بحساسيتھا للضوء وذلك يؤدي الي تغيرات ضوئيةوتركيبية .ان دراسة العوامل الضوئية مثل معامل االمتصاص تعطي معلومات عن تركيب الحزمة وفجوة الطاقة فيالمادة.وتعتبر ظاھرة القطع) فتح وقفل( والتي تسمي بظاھرة ) (Switchingملحوظة في اشباة الموصالت االمورفية وان االھمية التكنولوجية لزجاجيات اشباة الموصالت الشالكوجنية ليست فقط نتيجة تطبيقاتھا التكنولوجية القيمة في االجھزة الحديثةولكن ايضا ھذة االھمية ترجع الي ثمنھا بالمقارنةبأ شباة الموصالت االخري.ان تطبيقتھا في التكنولوجيا الحديثة تتضمن استخدام الطاقة واكتشاف الخطأ الحراري ومراقبة الحرارة والرؤية الليلية.ويتم اختيارھا لتطبيقات الكمبيوتر و الذاكرة والقطع بفضل خواص القطع الجيد لھا وايضا يتم تطبيقتھا في الترانزستور وفي وحدات الكھروغرافية . ان احWWد التطبيقWWات الشWWيقة الشWWباة الموصWWالت االمورفيWWة ھWWو فWWي تصWWنيع الحساسWWات للتحلWWيالت الطبيWWة وحمايWWة البيئWWة .وايضWWا يWWتم تصWWWWWنيع االليWWWWWاف الضWWWWWوئية مWWWWWن اشWWWWWباة الموصWWWWWالت االمورفيWWWWWة الشWWالكوجنية وتلWWك االليWWاف الضWWوئية يشWWيع اسWWتخدامھا فWWي انظمWWة االتصاالت الالسلكية واالضاءة والتصوير الضوئي.لقد اصبح تركيWز الباحثين علي االلياف الضوئية بسيب اسWتخدامھا المفيWد فWي اجھWزة القطWWع فائقWWة السWWرعة واالغWWراض الجراحيWWة .ان آشWWباة الموصWWالت االمورفيWWة تتنWWافس بتفWWوق علWWي االجھزةالمصWWنوعة مWWن السWWيلكون
الجرعة 15 MRadوالتي اوضحت قيمة ثابتة للنفاذية عند اضافة االنديوم.
المستخلـــــــــص الزجاجيات الشالكوجينية ھي مجموعة مميزة من المواد الزجاجية الغيرعضوية )(Chalcogenideglassesوالتي تحتوي دائما علي واحد او اكثر من العناصر الشالكوجينية كالكبريت او السيلينيوم او التليريوم وتتميز ھذه الزجاجيات عموما بانھا اقل نشاطا او اقل ترابط من الزجاجيات التي تحوى على االكسجين. وقد تم تحضير مركبات من النظام In x Sn20 Se(60-x) Bi20حيث x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3%باستخدام عناصر األنديوم و القصدير و السيلينيوم و البيزمس عالية النقاوة ) (99,999وبصھر ھذه المكونات تحت التفريغ 4-10 سم زئبق في أنابيب سيلكا سابقة التنظيف عند درجة حرارة 900سليزيس لمدة 10ساعات ثم تبريدھا تبريدا فجائيا في الثلج المجروش .وقد تم التاكد من الطبيعة الغير متبلورة والمتجانسة للمركبات المحضرة باستخدام جھاز حيود االشعة السينية وكذلك استخدام المسح الحراري التفاضلي .وقد تم تحضير عينات االغشية الرقيقة بسمك 100نانومترباستخدام التبخير الحراري للعينات. وسيتم دراسة تاثير التشعيع والضوء وبعض التاثيرات االخري علي العينات في ھذه الرسالة
دراسة الخواص الفيزيائية لبعض مواد اشباة الموصالت
رسالة مقدمة للحصول على درجة الماجستير فى العلوم )تخصص فيزياء الجوامد( إلى كلية العلوم – جامعة حلوان من
أميرة علي عبدالوھاب بكالوريوس علوم ) (2007جامعة حلوان
دراسة الخواص الفيزيائية لبعض مواد اشباة الموصالت رسالة مقدمة للحصول على درجة الماجستير فى العلوم )تخصص فيزياء الجوامد( إلى كلية العلوم – جامعة حلوان من
أميرة علي عبد الوھاب بكالوريوس علوم ) -(2007جامعة حلوان
المشرفون أ .د /.عبدالرحمن عبدالمعبود -عبدالمنجي قسم الفيزياء -كلية العلوم – جامعة حلوان. أ.د.م /حاتم حسن عامر قسم الجوامدوالمعجالت االلكترونية-ھيئة الطاقة الذرية. د /.ياسرمحمد الجندي قسم الفيزياء -كلية العلوم – جامعة حلوان.
Study of The Physical Properties of Some Semiconductor Materials.
Study of The Physical Properties of Some Semiconductor Materials. Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement of th...
Course pdf Title Engineering Materials for Electrical Engineers. Advanced Materials. Cahn, Merton C. Advanced High Temperature Semiconductor Packaging Material Based on. 2009. 55 26 Semiconductor PKGs for electronic equipment have grown with the deve
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Editorial Manager(tm) for Construction Materials. Manuscript ... Centre Manager at the ..... Shear Strength of Compacted Rockfill, Geotechnique, 1980, 30, No.
Indraputra pun heran melihat seorang perempuan diperebutkan oleh dua orang laki-laki dan bagal-bagai .... "Siapa tua daripada antara beta kedua'ini dan siapa dahulu dijadikan oleh dewaJa mulia raya? ...... necessarily refer to Hainan island, but more
strength plus high ductility are required. Railroad cars; trailer bodies; aircraft structurals; fasteners; automobile wheel covers, trim; pole line hardware. 302 (S30200): General-purpose austenitic stainless steel. Trim; food-handling equip- ment; a
The results of study of austempered ductile iron using different methods of austempering are presented. Except changing time, temperature of austenitizing and ...
Currently, there is no known shelf life for unopened HXTAL containers. HXTAL NYL-1 formulated to perfectly match index of retraction of glass, ceramic, metals ...
Figure 5: Flexural strength versus temperature of various. Victrex materials. PEEK 450CA30. ST 45CA30. WG101. PEEK 450FC30. PEEK 450G. 50,000. 40,000.
published material and contains index maps for several of the. BGS series. The British Geological Survey carries out the geological survey of Great Britain and ..... Basin 46. 4.10a Specific capacity results from pumping tests in the. Bagshot Formati
The results show that after communicative translation, .... Newmark's semantic and communicative model of translation has been divided into four subcategories ...
Mar 23, 2011 - . I. Kreft, Proceedings 2nd International Symposium Buck- wheat, Miyazaki, Japan, 1983, pp. 3-12. . B. Min, S. M. Lee, S-H. Yoo, G. E. Inglett, S. Lee J. Sci. Food Agric. 90 (2010) 2208-2213. . M. GavriloviÄ, Tehnologija kond